महाभारत में शूद्र


sankshipt parichay
mahabharat mean shoodr
charmakar ka abhikalpit chitr
vivaran shoodr bharatiy samaj vyavastha mean chaturth varn ya jati hai.
utpatti shoodr shabd moolat: videshi hai aur sanbhavat: ek parajit anary jati ka mool nam tha.
pauranik sandarbh vayu puran ka kathan hai ki shok karake dravit hone vale paricharyarat vyakti shoodr haian. bhavishyapuran mean shruti ki druti (avashishtaansh) prapt karane vale shoodr kahalae.[1]
vaidik paranpara atharvaved mean kalyani vak (ved) ka shravan shoodroan ko vihit tha.[2] paranpara hai ki aitarey brahman ka rachayita mahidas itara (shoodr) ka putr tha. kiantu bad mean vedadhyayan ka adhikar shoodroan se le liya gaya.
aitihasik sandarbh shoodr janajati ka ullekh dayodoras, t aaulmi aur hven tsaang bhi karate haian.
arthik sthiti uttar vaidik kal mean shoodr ki sthiti das ki thi athava nahian[3] is vishay mean nishchit nahian kaha ja sakata. vah karmakar aur paricharya karane vala varg tha.
madhy kal kabir, raidas, pipa is kal ke prasiddh shoodr sant haian. asam ke shankaradev dvara pravartit mat, panjab ka sikkh sanpraday aur maharashtr ke barakari sanpraday ne shoodr mahattv dharmik kshetr mean pratishthit kiya.
adhunik kal vebar, bhimarav ambedakar, zimar aur ramasharan sharma kramash: shoodroan ko moolat: bharatavarsh mean prathamagat aryaskandh, kshatriy, brahuee bhashi aur abhir sanbaddh manate haian.
sanbandhit lekh varn vyavastha, brahman, vaishy, kshatriy, charmakar, mina, kumhar, das, bhil, banjara
any janakari pad se utpann hone ke karan padaparicharya shoodroan ka vishisht vyavasay hai. dvijoan ke sath asan, shayan vak aur path mean samata ki ichchha rakhane vala shoodr dandy hai.[4]

mahabharat mean abhiroan ke sath shoodroan ki charcha bar-bar janajati ke roop mean huee hai, jisase ee.poo. dasavian shatabdi ki paramparaoan ka abhas milata hai. is mahakavy mean shoodr kul ka ullekh kshatriy aur vaishy kul ke sath hua hai,[5] aur shoodr janajati ka varnan abhiroan, daradoan, tukharoan, pahalavoan adi ke sath hua hai,[6] tatha kul evan jati ke bich spasht bhed dikhaya gaya hai. nakul ne apani digvijay-yatra ke kram mean jin jatiyoan ko parajit kiya, unaki soochi mean[7] tatha rajasooy yajn ke avasar par yudhishthir ko jin logoan ne upahar prastut kie unaki soochi mean[8] bhi shoodr ka ullekh janajati ke roop mean hua hai. inaka kalakram nirdharit karane ke lie sambhavat: ek or bharat yuddh ke samay vidyaman shoodroan aur abhiroan tatha doosari or bad mean is soochi mean prakshipt shakoan, tukharoan, pahalavoan, romakoan, chini aur hoonoan adi janoan ke bich vibhed karana p dega.[9] bharatiyetar srotoan se aisa kuchh pata nahian chalata ki eesvi sanh ke poorv ya pashchat ki kuchh arambhik shatabdiyoan mean shoodroan aur abhiroan ka bahari deshoan se bhi koee sambandh tha. is bat ke samarthak tathy shayad hi upalabdh haian ki abhir eesa ki arambhik shatabdiyoan mean bharat ae. maloom hota hai ki bharat yuddh ke samay ve janajati ke roop mean rahate the,[10] par us mahayuddh ke pashchat jo ast-vyastata ki avadhi aee usase ve panjab mean bikhar ge.[11] abhiroan ke sath shoodroan ka bhi bar-bar ullekh hua hai, usase sanket milata hai ki ve purani janajati ke the aur yuddh ke samay sukhi evan sampann the. atharvaved ke arambhik aansh mean shoodr shabd ke janajati svaroop kie ge arth ke vah sarvatha upayukt hai.

shoodr ary the?

doosara prashn yah hai ki shoodr ary the ya ary-agaman se pahale ki janajati the aur yadi ve ary the, to bharat mean kis samay ae. shoodr janajati ke manavajatiy vargikaran (ethanol aaujikal klasifikeshan) ke vishay mean paraspar virodhi vichar vyakt kiye ge haian. pahale yah mana jata tha ki pahale-pahal jo ary ae unamean se kuchh shoodr janajati ke the,[12] bad mean yah mane jane laga ki shoodr aryapoorv janoan ki ek shakha the,[13] kintu donoan vicharoan mean se kisi ke bhi paksh mean koee sabal praman nahian hai. upalabdh tathyoan ke adhar par socha ja sakata hai ki shoodr janajati ka aryoan ke sath kuchh sadrishy tha. shoodroan ki charcha hamesha abhiroan ke sath huee hai,[14] jo aryoan ki ek aisi boli ‘abhiri’ bolate the.[15] brahmanakal mean shoodr aryoan ki bhasha samajhane mean samarth the, jisase paroksh roop mean siddh hota hai ki ve aryoan ki bhasha janate the. itana hi nahian, shoodr ko ary poorv logoan, yatha dravi d, puliand, shabar adi ki soochi mean kabhi shamil nahian kiya gaya hai. unhean barabar uttar-pashchim ka nivasi mana gaya hai,[16] jahaan age chalakar mukhyat: ary hi nivas karate the.[17] abhir aur shoodr sarasvati nadi ke nikat rahate the.[18] kaha jata hai ki in logoan ke prati bair-bhav ke karan sarasvati marubhoomi mean vilin ho gee.[19] ye sandarbh mahattvapoorn hai kyoanki drishadvati ke sath sarasvati us pradesh ki ek sima sthir karati thi, jo ary desh kahalata tha. ‘dahe’ shabd bharatiy ‘das’ shabd ka eerani paryay hai, kintu shoodr ke lie aisa tadamy sthapan kathin hai. yah kaha ja sakata hai ki grik ‘kudros’ shabd ka samanarthak hai,[20] jise homar ne (ee.poo. dasavian-navian shatabdi) ‘mahan’ ke arth mean prayukt kiya hai aur isaka prayog samanyataya martyalok ke praniyoan ke lie nahian, balki devalokavasiyoan ki visheshata batane ke lie kiya gaya hai.[21] bharat mean, bad mean, shoodr shabd apamanasoochak mana jane laga aur un logoan ke lie vyavahrit hota tha, jinase brahman aprasann the. isake viparit homarakalin gris mean ‘shoodr’ shatd (kudros) prashansatmak tha. ham yah kah sakate haian ki ‘kudr’ namak ek bharopiy janajati thi, jisaki shakhaean gris aur bharat donoan deshoan mean gee. gris mean is shakha ko mahattv ka sthan mila, lekin is jati ke jo log bharatavarsh mean ae, unhean anek sahakramanakariyoan ne harakar apane adhin kar liya. is karan gris mean kudroan ka ooancha sthan hua aur bharat mean shoodroan ka nicha. ek hi shabd ke vibhinn sandarbh mean viparit arth hote haian, jaisa ki asur shabd ke udaharan se spasht hai. bharat mean asur anishtakar (shaitan) mana jata hai, kintu usake pratiroop ‘ahur’ ko eeran mean devata mana jata hai. bharat aur gris mean shoodr shabd ka prayog-bhed bhi isi prakar ka mana ja sakata hai, kintu uparokt vyakhya ko tab tak nishchayatmak nahian kaha ja sakata, jab tak ki yah pramanit n ho jae ki kudros gris ki ek janajati thi. yah sambhav pratit hota hai ki dasoan ke saman shoodr bhi bharatiy aryavansh ke logoan se sambandhit the.

shoodroan ka agaman

yadi shoodr bharatiy aryoan se sambaddh the, to ve bharat mean kab aye? kaha gaya hai ki ve bharat mean ane vale aryoan ke kisi arambh ke dal ke the.[22] kintu chooanki rrigved mean unaka ullekh nahian hua hai, isilie sambhav hai ki shoodr un videshi janajatiyoan mean se the, jo rrigvaidik kal ka ant hote-hote uttar-pashchim bharat mean aeean. puratattv sambandhi sakshy ke adhar par aisa sambhav maloom hota hai ki 2000 ee.poo. ke pashchat hazar varshoan tak logoan ka bharat mean ana jari raha.[23] is parikalpana ka samarthan bhashajany pramanoan se bhi hota hai.[24] atev anuman kiya jata hai ki shoodr ee. poo. doosare sahasrabd ke ant mean bharat ae, jabaki unhean vaidikakalin aryoan ne parajit kiya aur vaidik kal ke uttaravarti samaj ne unhean chaturth varn ke roop mean apanaya.

yah zor dekar kaha gaya hai ki brahmanoan ke sath dirghakal tak sangharsh karate rahane ke phalasvaroop kshatriyoan ko shoodr ki sthiti mean pahuancha diya gaya aur brahmanoan ne apane shatru kshatriyoan ko antat: upanayan (yajnopavit sanskar) ke adhikar se vanchit kar diya.[25] mahabharat ke shantiparv mean varnit ekamatr anushruti ke adhar par paijavan shoodr raja tha, yah dava kiya jata hai ki shoodr arambh mean kshatriy the.[26] is tarah ki dharana ka koee tathyagat adhar nahian hai.

  • prathamat:, rrigved kal mean kshatriyoan ka aisa varnan kahian nahian milata hai, jisase pata chale ki unaka ek nishchit varn tha tatha unake kartavy aur adhikar alag the. sampoorn janajati ke log yuddh aur sarvajanik karyoan ke prabandh ko apana kartavy samajhate the. yah kuchh gine-chune yoddhaoan ka kam nahian samajha jata tha. arambh se hi vikasit ho rahe yoddhaoan aur purohitoan ke samuday ne aryoan aur aryetar logoan ke sath yuddh mean vishh ka margadarshan kiya aur unhean sahayata di. jyoan-jyoan samay bitata gaya, saradar aur yoddhagan purohitoan ko udaratapoorvak bheant-upahar dene lage aur dharmik karmakaand jatil hota gaya, jisase karmakaand ka nishpadan karane vale purohitoan aur un purohitoan ko sanrakshan dene vale yoddhaoan ki shakti samany jan ki shakti ki apeksha bahut adhik badhi.
  • doosare, yadyapi uttaravaidik kal mean, parashuram aur vishvamitr ki kathaoan mean purohitoan aur yoddhaoan ka sangharsh dhvanit hota hai, phir bhi isaka koee praman nahian hai ki vivad ka vishay upanayan tha, jisaka nirnay kshatriyoan ke vipaksh mean hua. uttaravaidik kal ke ant mean krishi ke arambh ho jane se kisanoan se anaj vasool kiya jane laga. is vasooli mean kisaka kitana hissa hoga, ise lekar saradaroan aur purohitoan mean sangharsh avashyanbhavi tha. sangharsh samajik adhipaty ko lekar hua karata tha, jisake adhar par visheshadhikaroan ka nirnay hota tha. jnan ke kshetr mean brahmanoan ke ekadhikar ke vishay mean bhi kuchh vivad uthe aur kshatriyoan ne ise chunauti di aur usamean saphal bhi hue. aisa jan p data hai ki ashvapati kaikey aur pravahan jaivali sambhavat: brahmanoan ke adhyapak the.[27] mithila ke kshatriy shasak janak ne upanishadiy chiantan ko age badhane mean yogadan diya tatha kshatriy raja vishvamitr ne brahmarshi ka pad prapt kiya. uttar-poorv bharat mean kshatriyoan ka vidroh gautam buddh aur varddhaman mahavir ke upadeshoan ke roop mean apani charam sima par aya. unake anusar samaj mean pramukh sthan kshatriyoan ka tha aur brahman usake bad the. jhag da is prashn ko lekar aya ki samaj mean pratham sthan brahmanoan ko mile ya kshatriyoan ko. n to uttar-vaidik aur maury-poorv ganthoan mean hi kahian aisa sanket hai ki brahman chahate the ki kshatriyoan ko tritiy ya chaturth varn mean rakha jae, ya kshatriyoan ki yah ichchha thi ki brahmanoan ki vah gati ho.
  • tisari bat, aisa sochana galat hai ki arambh mean upanayan sanskar ka n hona shoodrata ka nishchit praman mana jata tha. is mamale mean aj ke nyayalayoan ka nirnay[28] us samay ki paristhitiyoan ka dyotak nahian ban sakata, jab shoodr varn ka udabhav hua. shoodroan ko upanayan-chyut keval uttar-vaidik kal mean paya jata hai aur tab bhi shoodroan ki dasatasoochak ekamatr ashaktata keval yahi nahian thi ki unhean yajnopavit se vanchit rakha gaya, is tarah ki any kee avashyakataean thian. aisa nahian tha ki upanayan nahian hone ke karan ary shoodr mean parivartit ho ge the, balki arthik aur samajik vishamataoan ke chalate ve is adhogati mean pahuanche the.
  • chauthi bat yah hai ki shantiparv ki is anushruti ki pramanikata ko dridhatapoorvak svikar karana kathin hai ki paijavan shoodr tha. use sudash se abhinn mana gaya hai, jo bharat janajati ka pradhan tha, aur kaha jata hai ki das rajaoan ke yuddh ka yah suprasiddh nayak shoodr hi tha.[29] vaidik granthoan mean aise tathy nahian haian, jinase is vichar ki pushti hoti ho aur shantiparv ki anushruti ko kisi any srot se, chahe vah mahakavy ho ya puran, bal nahian milata hai. is anushruti ke anusar shoodr paijavan yajn karate the. yah bat bhi aise prasang mean aee hai, jahaan par kaha gaya hai ki shoodr paanch mahayajn kar sakate the aur dan de sakate the.[30] yah nirnay karana kathin hai ki yah anushruti sach hai ya jhooth. kintu isaka uddeshy yah siddh karana tha ki shoodr yajn aur dan-puny kar sakate the. aisa drishtikon shantiparv ki udaravadi bhavana ke anukool tha, aur tab paida hua, jab shoodr kisanoan ki sankhya badhakar kafi ho gee. yah bhi dhyatavy hai ki paravarti kal mean brahman aise kisi bhi vyakti ke lie, jo unaka virodh karata tha, vyapak roop se shoodr ya vrishal shabd ka prayog karane lagate the. hamean maloom nahian ki shoodr paijavan ke sath bhi aisi hi bat thi ya nahian. pray: aise kathanoan ka arth yah nahian ki kshatriy aur brahman shoodr ki sthiti mean pahuanch ge the, balki ve matr itana sanket dete haian ki in many vyaktiyoan ki utpatti shoodroan se huee thi, khasakar matrikul ki or se.[31]

spasht hai ki ary janajatiyoan aur unaki sansthaoan ki hi tarah shoodr janajati bhi sainik krityoan ka nirvah karati thi.[32] mahabharat mean shoodroan ki sena ka ullekh aanbashthoan, shiviyoan, shoorasenoan adi ke sath hua hai.[33] kintu, jaisa ki ham janate haian, isase poori janajati kshatriy varn nahian ban saki aur n usake kartavy aur visheshadhikar sunishchit ho sake. at: is siddhant mean shayad hi koee bal hai ki kshatriyoan ko shoodr ki sthiti mean pahuancha diya gaya tha.