मथुरा

mathura
mathura ke vibhinn drishy
vivaran mathura uttar pradesh rajy ka ek aitihasik evan dharmik nagar hai, jo paryatan sthal ke roop mean bhi bahut prasiddh hai.
rajy uttar pradesh
zila mathura zila
bhaugolik sthiti uttar 27.49, poorv 77.67
marg sthiti yah agara se dilli ki or aur dilli se agara ki or kramash: 58 ki.mi. uttar-pashchim evan 145 ki.mi. dakshin-pashchim mean yamuna ke kinare rashtriy rajamarg 2 par sthit hai.
tapaman grishm 22° se 45° se., shit 40° se 32° se.
prasiddhi 'krishn janmabhoomi', 'baanke bihari mandir', dvarikadhish mandir, 'mathura rifainari', 'mathura sangrahalay' adi.
kab jaean kabhi bhi ja sakate haian.
kaise pahuanchean bas, rel, kar adi se asani se mathura pahuancha ja sakata hai.
relave steshan mathura jankshan, mathura kaiant steshan
bas adda naya bas adda, purana bas adda
kahaan thaharean hotal, dharmashala, vishram grah
kya khayean chat, kachau di, jalebi, lassi, mathura ke pe de adi
kya kharidean mala, kanthi, bhagavan ki moortiyaan, poshak, shankh,baansuri adi
es.ti.di. kod 91(565)
e.ti.em lagabhag sabhi
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  1. kramaankit soochi aitam
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sanbandhit lekh yamuna, holi, vrindavan, govardhan, barasana, gokul, nandagaanv, mahavan adi.
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vahan panjiyan UP-85
bahari k diyaan adhikarik vebasait
adyatan‎

mathura uttar pradesh rajy ka ek aitihasik evan dharmik nagar hai, jo paryatan sthal ke roop mean bhi bahut prasiddh hai. mathura, bhagavan shrikrishn ki janmasthali aur bharat ki param prachin tatha jagadh-vikhyat nagari hai. shoorasen desh ki yahaan rajadhani thi. pauranik sahity mean mathura ko anek namoan se sanbodhit kiya gaya hai, jaise- 'shoorasen nagari', 'madhupuri', 'madhunagari', 'madhura' adi.

bhaugolik sthiti

mathura yamuna nadi ke pashchimi tat par sthit hai. samudr tal se ooanchaee 187 mitar hai. jalavayu-grishm 22° se 45° se., shit 40° se 32° se. ausat varsha 66 se.mi. joon se sitanbar tak hoti hai. mathura janapad uttar pradesh ki pashchimi sima par sthit hai. isake poorv mean janapad eta, uttar mean janapad aligadh, dakshin-poorv mean janapad agara, dakshin-pashchim mean rajasthan evan pashchim-uttar mean hariyana rajy sthit haian. mathura, agara mandal ka uttar-pashchimi zila hai. yah akshaansh 27° 41' uttar aur deshantar 77° 41' poorv ke madhy sthit hai. mathura janapad mean char tahasilean- maant, chhata, mahavan aur mathura tatha 10 vikas khand haian- nandagaanv, chhata, chaumuhaan, govardhan, mathura, farah, nauhajhil, maant, raya aur baldev haian. janapad ka bhaugolik kshetraphal 3329.4 varg ki.mi. hai.

pramukh nadi 'yamuna'

janapad ki pramukh nadi yamuna hai, jo uttar se dakshin ki or bahati huee janapad ki kul char tahasiloan maant, mathura, mahavan aur chhata mean se hokar bahati hai. yamuna ka poorvi bhag paryapt upajaoo hai tatha pashchimi bhag apekshakrit kam upajaoo hai. is janapad ki pramukh nadi yamuna hai. isaki do sahayak nadiyaan 'karavan' tatha 'pathavaha' haian. yamuna nadi varsh bhar bahati hai tatha janapad ki pratyek tahasil ko chhooti huee bahati hai. yah pratyek varsh apana marg badalati rahati hai, jisake parinam svaroop hazaroan haikteyar kshetraphal badh se prabhavit ho jata hai. yamuna nadi ke kinare ki bhoomi khadar hai. janapad ki vayu shuddh evan svasthyavardhak hai. garmiyoan mean adhik garmi aur sardiyoan mean adhik sardi p dana yahaan ki visheshata hai. varsha ke alava varsh bhar shesh samay mausam samanyat: shushk rahata hai. mee v joon ke mahinoan mean tez garm pashchimi havayean (loo) chalati haian. janapad mean adhikaansh varsha julaee v agast mah mean hoti hai. janapad ke pashchimi bhag mean ajakal badh ka ana samany ho gaya hai, jisase kafi kshetr jalamagn ho jata hai.

mathura sandarbh

shoorasen desh ki mukhy nagari mathura ke vishay mean aj tak koee vaidik sanket nahian prapt ho saka hai. kintu ee.poo. paanchavian shatabdi se isaka astitv siddh ho chuka hai. 'aanguttaranikay'[1] evan 'majjhimanikay'[2] mean aya hai ki buddh ke ek mahan shishy 'mahakachyayan' ne mathura mean apane guru ke siddhantoan ki shiksha di. maigasthaniz sambhavat: mathura ko janata tha aur isake sath hareklij ke sambandh se bhi parichit tha. 'mathur'[3] shabd jaimini ke poorv mimaansasootr mean bhi aya hai. yadyapi panini ke sootroan mean spasht roop se 'mathura' shabd nahian aya hai, kintu varanadi-gan[4] mean isaka prayog milata hai. kintu panini ko vasudev, arjun[5], yadavoan ke aandhak- vrishni log, sambhavat: govind bhi[6] jnat the.

  • patanjali ke 'mahabhashy' mean mathura shabd kee bar aya hai.[7] kee sthanoan par vasudev dvara kans ke nash ka ullekh natakiy sanketoan, chitroan evan gathaoan ke roop mean aya hai. 'uttaradhyayanasootr' mean mathura ko 'sauryapur' kaha gaya hai, kintu 'mahabhashy' mean ullikhit saury nagar mathura hi hai, aisa kahana sandehatmak hai. adiparv[8] mean aya hai ki mathura ati sundar gayoan ke lie un dinoan prasiddh thi. jab jarasandh ke vir senapati hans evan dimbhak yamuna mean doob gaye, aur jab jarasandh du:khit hokar magadh chala gaya to krishn kahate haian- "ab ham pun: prasann hokar mathura mean rah sakeange."[9] ant mean jarasandh ke lagatar akramanoan se tang akar krishn ne yadavoan ko dvaraka mean le jakar basaya.[10]

mathura ka parichay

mor, mathura

bharatavarsh ka vah bhag jo himalay aur viandhyachal ke bich mean p data hai, prachinakal mean aryavart kahalata tha. yahaan par panapi huee bharatiy sanskriti ko jin dharaoan ne siancha ve ganga aur yamuna ki dharaean thian. inhian donoan nadiyoan ke kinare bharatiy sanskriti ke kee kendr bane aur vikasit hue. varanasi, prayag, kaushambi, hastinapur, kannauj adi kitane hi aise sthan haian, parantu yah talika tab tak poorn nahian ho sakati, jab tak isamean mathura ka samavesh n kiya jay. yah agara se dilli ki or aur dilli se agara ki or kramash: 58 ki.mi. uttar-pashchim evan 145 ki.mi. dakshin-pashchim mean yamuna ke kinare rashtriy rajamarg 2 par sthit hai.

'ramayan' mean ullekh

valmiki ramayan mean mathura ko madhupur ya madhudanav ka nagar kaha gaya hai tatha yahaan lavanasur ki rajadhani bataee gee hai-[11] is nagari ko is prasang mean madhudaity dvara basaee, bataya gaya hai. lavanasur, jisako shatrughn ne yuddh mean harakar mara tha, isi madhudanav ka putr tha.[12] isase madhupuri ya mathura ka ramayan-kal mean basaya jana soochit hota hai. ramayan mean is nagari ki samriddhi ka varnan hai.[13] is nagari ko lavanasur ne bhi sajaya sanvara tha.[14]danav, daity, rakshas adi jaise sanbodhan vibhinn kal mean anek arthoan mean prayukt hue haian, kabhi jati ya qabile ke lie, kabhi ary anary sandarbh mean to kabhi dusht prakriti ke vyaktiyoan ke lie). prachinakal se ab tak is nagar ka astitv akhandit roop se chala a raha hai.

shoorasen janapad

shoorasen janapad ka naksha

shoorasen janapad ke namakaran ke sanbandh mean vidvanoan ke anek mat haian kintu koee bhi sarvamany nahian hai. shatrughn ke putr ka nam shoorasen tha. jab sitaharan ke bad sugriv ne vanaroan ko sita ki khoj mean uttar disha mean bheja to shatabali aur vanaroan se kaha- 'uttar mean mlechchh' pulind, shoorasen, prasthal, bharat (indraprasth aur hastinapur ke asapas ke prant), kuru (kurudesh) (dakshin kuru- kurukshetr ke asapas ki bhoomi), madr, kamboj, yavan, shakoan ke deshoan evan nagaroan mean bhali-bhaanti anusandhan karake darad desh mean aur himalay parvat par dhooandho. [15] isase spasht hai ki shatrughn ke putr se pahale hi 'shoorasen' janapad nam astitv mean tha. haihayavanshi kartaviry arjun ke sau putroan mean se ek ka nam shoorasen tha aur usake nam par yah shoorasen rajy ka namakaran hone ki sanmbhavana bhi hai, kintu haihayavanshi kartaviry arjun ka mathura se koee sidha sanbandh hona spasht nahian hai. mahabharat ke samay mean mathura shoorasen desh ki prakhyat nagari thi. lavanasur ke vadhoparaant shatrughn ne is nagari ko pun: basaya tha. unhoanne madhuvan ke jangaloan ko katava kar usake sthan par nee nagari basaee thi. yahian krishn ka janm, yahaan ke adhipati kans ke karagar mean hua tatha unhoanne bachapan mean hi atyachari kans ka vadh karake desh ko usake abhishap se chhutakara dilavaya. kans ki mrityu ke bad shrikrishn mathura hi mean bas ge, kiantu jarasandh ke akramanoan se bachane ke lie unhoanne mathura chho d kar dvaraka nagari basaee[16] dasham sarg, 58 mean mathura par kalayavan ke akraman ka vritaant hai. isane tin karo d mlechchhoan ko lekar mathura ko gher liya tha.[17]

shoorasen janapad ki sima

prachin shoorasen janapad ka vistar dakshin mean chanbal nadi se lekar uttar mean vartaman mathura nagar se 75 ki.mi. uttar mean sthit kuru (kurudesh) rajy ki sima tak tha. usaki sima pashchim mean matsy aur poorv mean paanchal janapad se milati thi. mathura nagar ko mahakavyoan evan puranoan mean 'mathura' evan `madhupuri' namoan se sanbodhit kiya gaya hai.[18] vidvanoan ne `madhupuri' ki pahachan mathura ke 6 mil pashchim mean sthit vartaman 'maholi' se ki hai.[19] prachin kal mean yamuna nadi mathura ke pas se gujarati thi, aj bhi isaki sthiti yahi hai. plini[20] ne yamuna ko jomenas kaha hai, jo methora aur klisobora[21] ke madhy bahati thi.

prachin sahity mean mathura

harivansh puran[22] mean bhi mathura ke vilas-vaibhav ka manohar chitr hai.[23]vishnu puran mean bhi mathura ka ullekh hai,[24] vishnu-puran[25] mean shatrughn dvara purani mathura ke sthan par hi nee nagari ke basae jane ka ullekh hai.[26] is samay tak madhura nam ka roopaantar mathura prachalit ho gaya tha. kalidas ne 'raghuvansh'[27] mean iandumati ke svanyavar ke prasang mean shoorasenadhipati sushen ki rajadhani mathura mean varnit ki hai.[28] isake sath hi govardhan ka bhi ullekh hai. mallinath ne 'mathura` ki tika karate hue likha hai`-'kalianditire mathura lavanasuravadhakale shatrughnen nirmasyateti vakshyati`.

shoorasen se mathura

prachin granthoan hindoo, bauddh, jain evan yoonani sahity mean is janapad ka shoorasen nam anek sthanoan par milata hai. prachin granthoan mean mathura ka methora[29], madura[30], mat-au-lau[31], mo-tu-lo[32] tatha sauripur[33]sauryapur) namoan ka bhi ullekh milata hai. in udaharanoan se aisa pratit hota hai ki shoorasen janapad ki sanjna eesvi san ke arambh tak jari rahi [34] aur shak-kushanoan ke prabhutv ke sath hi is janapad ki sanjna rajadhani ke nam par `mathura' ho gee. is parivartan ka mukhy karan tha ki yah nagar shak-kushanakalin samay mean itani prasiddhi ko prapt ho chuka tha ki log janapad ke nam ko bhi mathura nam se pukarane lage aur kalaantar mean janapad ka shoorasen nam janasadharan ke smritipatal se vismrit ho gaya.

puranoan mean mathura

puranoan mean mathura ke gauravamay itihas ka vishad vivaran milata hai. anek dharmoan se sanbandhit hone ke karan mathura mean basane aur rahane ka mahattv kramash: badhata raha. aisi manyata thi ki yahaan rahane se paparahit ho jate haian tatha isamean rahane karane valoan ko moksh ki prapti hoti hai.[35] varah puran mean kaha gaya hai ki is nagari mean jo log shuddh vichar se nivas karate haian, ve manav ke roop mean sakshat devata haian.[36] shraddh karm ka vishesh phal mathura mean prapt hota hai. mathura mean shraddh karane valoan ke poorvajoan ko adhyatmik mukti milati hai.[37] uttanapad ke putr dhruv ne mathura mean tapasya karake nakshatroan mean sthan prapt kiya tha.[38] puranoan mean mathura ki mahima ka varnan hai. prithvi ke yah poochhane par ki mathura jaise tirth ki mahima kya hai? mahavarah ne kaha tha- 'mujhe is vasuandhara mean patal athava aantariksh se bhi mathura adhik priy hai.'[39] varah puran mean bhi mathura ke sandarbh mean ullekh milata hai, yahaan ki bhaugolik sthiti ka varnan milata hai.[40] yahaan mathura ki map bis yojan batayi gayi hai.[41] is mandal mean mathura, gokul, vrindavan, govardhan adi nagar, gram evan mandir, t dag, kund, van evan anaganit tirthoan ke hone ka vivaran milata hai. inaka vistrit varnan puranoan mean milata hai. ganga ke saman hi yamuna ke gauravamay mahattv ka bhi vishad vivaran kiya gaya hai. puranoan mean varnit rajaoan ke shasan evan unake vanshoan ka bhi varnan prapt hota hai.

mathura mandal

mathura ka mandal 20 yojanoan tak vistrit tha aur mathurapuri isake bich mean sthit thi.[42] varah puran evan naradiy puran (uttarardh, adhyay 79-80) ne mathura evan isake asapas ke tirthoan ka ullekh kiya hai. varah puran[43] evan naradiy puran[44] ne mathura ke pas ke 12 vanoan ki charcha ki hai, yatha- madhuvan, talavan, kumudavan, kamyavan, bahulavan, bhadravan, khadiravan, mahavan, lauhajanghavan, bilvavan, bhaandiravan evan vrindavan. 24 upavan bhi[45] the jinhean puranoan ne nahian, pratyut pashchatkalin granthoan ne varnit kiya hai.

  • vrindavan yamuna ke kinare mathura ke uttar-pashchim mean tha aur vistar mean paanch yojan tha.[46] padmapuran[47] ne krishn, gopiyoan evan kalindi ki goodh vyakhya upasthit ki hai. gop-patniyaan yogini haian, kalindi sushumna hai, krishn sarvavyapak haian, adi. yahi krishn ki lila-bhoomi thi. padmapuran[48] ne ise prithvi par vaikunth mana hai. matsyapuran[49] ne radha ko vrindavan mean devi dakshayani mana hai. kalidas ke kal mean yah prasiddh tha. raghuvansh (6) mean nip kul ke evan shoorasen ke raja sushen ka varnan karate hue kaha gaya hai ki vrindavan kuber ki vatika chitrarath se kisi prakar sundarata mean kam nahian hai. isake uparant govardhan ki mahatta hai, jise krishn ne apani kanishtha aanguli par indr dvara bheji gayi varsha se gop-gopiyoan evan unake pashuoan ko bachane ke lie uthaya tha.[50]

braj sanskriti

yahaan ke van–upavan, kunj–nikunj, shri yamuna v giriraj atyant mohak haian. pakshiyoan ka madhur svar ekaki sthal ko madak evan manohar banata hai. moroan ki bahutayat tatha unaki pioo-pioo ki avaz se vatavaran gunjayaman rahata hai. balyakal se hi bhagavan shrikrishn ki sundar mor ke prati vishesh kripa tatha usake pankhoan ko shish mukut ke roop mean dharan karane se skand vahan svaroop mor ko bhakti sahity mean mahattvapoorn sthan mila hai. bharat ki sarakar ne mor ko 'rashtriy pakshi' ghoshit kar ise sanrakshan diya hai.

Blockquote-open.gif varah puran[51] evan naradiy puran[52] ne mathura ke pas ke 12 vanoan ki charcha ki hai, yatha- madhuvan, talavan, kumudavan, kamyavan, bahulavan, bhadravan, khadiravan, mahavan, lauhajanghavan, bilvavan, bhaandiravan evan vrindavan. 24 upavan bhi[53] the, jinhean puranoan ne nahian, pratyut pashchatkalin granthoan ne varnit kiya hai. Blockquote-close.gif

braj ki jivan shaili

paramparagat roop se brajavasi sanand jivan vyatit karate haian. nity snan, bhajan, mandir gaman, darshan–jhaanki karana, din-dukhiyoan ki sahayata karana, atithi satkar, lokopakar ke kary, pashu-pakshiyoan ke prati prem, nariyoan ka samman v suraksha, bachchoan ke prati sneh, unhean achchhi shiksha dena tatha laukik vyavahar kushalata unaki jivan shaili ke aang ban chuke haian. yahaan kanya ko devi ke saman poojy mana jata hai. braj vanitayean pati ke sath din-rat kary karate hue kul ki maryada rakhakar pati ke sath rahane mean apana jivan sarthak manati hai. sanyukt parivar pranali sath rahane, kary karane , ek-doosare ka dhyan rakhane, chhote-b de ke prati yathochit samman, yahaan ki samajik vyavastha mean parilakshit hota hai. saty aur sanyam braj lok jivan ke pramukh aang haian. yahaan kary ke siddhant ki mahatta hai aur jivoan mean paramatma ka aansh manana hi divy drishti hai.

rath ka mela, vrindavan

vrat aur tyohar

mahilaoan ki maang mean sindoor, mathe par bindi, nak mean lauang ya bali, kanoan mean kundal ya jhumaki-jhali, gale mean mangal sootr, hathoan mean choo di, pairoan mean bichhua-chutaki, mahavar aur payajeb ya to diya unaki suhag ki nishani mani jati hai. vivahit mahilayean apane pati parivar aur grih ki mangal kamana hetu karava chauth ka vrat karati haian, putravati nariyaan santan ke mangalamay jivan hetu ahoee ashtami ka vrat rakhati haian. svargastak satiya chihn yahaan sabhi maangalik avasaroan par banaya jata hai aur shubh avasaroan par nariyal ka prayog kiya jata hai. desh ke kone-kone se log yahaan parvoan par ekatr hote haian. jahaan vividhata mean ekata ke sakshat darshan hote haian. braj mean pray: sabhi mandiroan mean rath yatra ka utsav hota hai. chaitr mas mean vrindavan mean ranganath ji ki savari vibhinn vahanoan par nikalati hai. jisamean desh ke kone-kone se akar bhakt sammilit hote haian. jyeshth mas mean ganga dashahara ke din prat: kal se hi vibhinn aanchaloan se shraddhalu akar yamuna mean snan karate haian. is avasar par bhi vibhinn prakar ki veshabhoosha aur shilp ke sath rashtriy ekata ke darshan hote haian, is din chhote-b de sabhi kalatmak dhang ki rangin patang u date haian.

parikrama

ashadh mas mean govardhan parvat ki parikrama hetu pray: sabhi kshetroan se yatri govardhan ate haian, jisamean abhooshanoan, paridhanoan adi se kshetr ki shilp kala udbhashit hoti hai. shravan mas mean hindoloan ke utsav mean vibhinn prakar se kalatmak dhang se sajja ki jati hai. bhadrapad mean mandiroan mean vishesh kalatmak jhaankiyaan tatha sajavat hoti hai. ashvin mah mean sampoorn braj kshetr mean kanyaean ghar ki divaroan par gobar se vibhinn prakar ki kritiyaan banati haian, jinamean kau diyoan tatha rangin chamakadar kagazoan ke abhooshanoan se apani saanjhi ko kalatmak dhang se sajakar arati karati haian. isi mah se mandiroan mean kagaz ke saanchoan se sookhe rangoan ki vedi ka nirman kar us par alpana banate haian. isako bhi 'saanjhi' kahate haian. kartik mas to shrikrishn ki bal lilaoan se paripoorn rahata hai. akshay tritiya tatha devotthan ekadashi ko mathura tatha vrindavan ki parikrama lagaee jati hai. basant panchami ko sampoorn braj kshetr basanti hota hai. phalgun mas mean to jidhar dekho udhar naga doan, jhaanjh par chaupaee tatha holi ke rasiya ki dhvaniyaan sunaee deti haian. nandagaanv tatha barasana ki latthamar holi, daooji ka huranga jagat prasiddh hai.

braj ka prachin sangit

tanasen

braj ke prachin sangitajnoan ki pramanik janakari 16vian shatabdi ke bhaktikal se milati hai. is kal mean anekoan sangitajn vaishnav sant hue. sangit shiromani svami haridas ji, inake guru ashudhir ji tatha unake shishy tanasen adi ka nam sarvavidit hai. baijoobavara ke guru bhi haridas ji kahe jate haian, kintu baijoo bavara ne ashtachhap ke kavi sangitajn govind svami ji se hi sangit ka abhyas kiya tha. nimbark sampraday ke shribhatt ji isi kal mean bhakt, kavi aur sangitajn hue. ashtachhap ke mahasangitajn kavi sooradas, nandadas, paramanand das ji adi bhi isi kal mean prasiddh kirtanakar, kavi aur gayak hue, jinake kirtan ballabhakul ke mandiroan mean gaye jate haian. svami haridas ji ne hi vastut: braj-sangit ke dhrupad-dhamar ki gayaki aur ras nrity ki parampara chalaee.

gayan-vadan

mathura mean sangit ka prachalan bahut purana hai, baansuri braj ka pramukh vady yantr hai. bhagavan shrikrishn ki baansuriko jan-jan janata hai, aur isi ko lekar unhean 'muralidhar' aur 'vanshidhar' adi namoan se pukara jata hai. vartaman mean bhi braj ke lok sangit mean dhol, mridang, jhaanjh, manjira, dhap, naga da, pakhavaj, ekatara adi vady yantroan ka prachalan hai. 16 vian shati se mathura mean ras ke vartaman roop ka prarambh hua. yahaan sabase pahale ballabhachary ne svami haradev ke sahayog se vishraant ghat par ras kiya. ras braj ki anokhi den hai, jisamean sangit ke git gady tatha nrity ka samishran hai. braj ke sahity ke saanskritik evan kalatmak jivan ko ras b di sundarata se abhivyakt karata hai. ashtachhap ke kaviyoan ke samay braj mean sangit ki madhuradhara pravahit huee. sooradas, nandadas, krishnadas adi svayan gayak the. in kaviyoan ne apani rachanaoan mean vividh prakar ke gitoan ka apar bhandar bhar diya.

kambojika
rajakiy sangrahalay, mathura

svami haridas sangit shastr ke prakand achary evan gayak the. tanasen jaise prasiddh sangitajn bhi unake shishy the. samrat akabar bhi svami ji ke madhur sangit gitoan ko sunane ka lobh sanvaran n kar saka aur isake lie bhesh badalakar unhean sunane vrindavan aya karata tha. mathura, vrindavan, gokul, govardhan lambe samay tak sangit ke kendr bane rahe aur yahaan door se sangit kala sikhane ate rahe.

lok git

braj mean anekanek gayan shailiyaan prachalit haian aur rasiya braj ki prachinatam gayaki kala hai. bhagavan shrikrishn ki bal lilaoan se sambandhit pad, rasiya adi gayaki ke sath rasalila ka ayojan hota hai. shravan mas mean mahilaoan dvara jhoola jhoolate samay gayi jane vali malhar gayaki ka pradurbhav braj se hi hai. lokasangit mean rasiya, dhola, alha, lavani, chaubola, bahal-tabil, bhagat adi sangit bhi samay-samay par sunane ko milata hai. isake atirikt rritu git, ghareloo git, saanskritik git samay-samay par vibhinn vargoan mean gaye jate haian.

moorti kala

yahaan sthapaty tatha moorti kala ke vikas ka sabase mahattvapoorn yug kushan kal ke prarambh se gupt kal ke ant tak raha. yadyapi isake bad bhi ye kalayean 12vian shati ke ant tak jari rahian. isake bad lagabhag 350 varshoan tak mathura kala ka pravah avaruddh raha, par 16vian shati se kala ka punarootthan sahity, sangit tatha chitrakala ke roop mean dikhaee p dane lagata hai.

holi

shrikrishn radha aur gopiyoan- gvaloan ke bich ki holi ke roop mean gulal, rang kesar ki pichakari se khoob khelate haian. holi ka arambh phalgun shukl navami barasana se hota hai. vahaan ki lathamar holi jag prasiddh hai. dashami ko aisi hi holi nandagaanv mean hoti hai. isi ke sath poore braj mean holi ki dhoom machati hai. dhuleandi ko pray: holi poorn ho jati hai, isake bad hurange chalate haian, jinamean mahilayean rangoan ke sath lathiyoan, ko doan adi se purushoan ko gherati haian. barasana aur nandagaanv ki lathamar holi to jagaprasiddh hai. 'nandagaanv ke kuanvar kanhaiya, barasane ki gori re rasiya' aur ‘barasane mean aee jiyo bulae gee radha pyari’ gitoan ke sath hi braj ki holi ki masti shuroo hoti hai. vaise to holi poore bharat mean manaee jati hai lekin braj ki holi khas masti bhari hoti hai. vajah ye ki ise krishn aur radha ke prem se jo d kar dekha jata hai. uttar bharat ke braj kshetr mean basant panchami se hi holi ka chalis divasiy utsav aranbh ho jata hai. nandagaanv evan barasane se hi holi ki vishesh umang jagrat hoti hai. jab nandagaanv ke gop gopiyoan par rang dalate, to nandagaanv ki gopiyaan unhean aisa karane se rokati thian aur n manane par lathi marana shuroo karati thian. holi ki toliyoan mean nandagaanv ke purush hote haian, kyoanki krishn yahian ke the, aur barasane ki mahilaean, kyoanki radha barasane ki thian. dilachasp bat ye hoti hai ki ye holi baki bharat mean kheli jane vali holi se pahale kheli jati hai. din shuroo hote hi nandagaanv ke huriyaroan ki toliyaan barasane pahuanchane lagati haian. sath hi pahuanchane lagati haian, kirtan mandaliyaan. is dauran bhaang-thandhee ka khoob iantazam hota hai. brajavasi logoan ki chirauanta jaisi akhoan ko dekhakar bhaang thandhee ki vyavastha ka aandaz laga lete haian. barasane mean tesoo ke phooloan ke bhagone taiyar rahate haian. dopahar tak ghamasan lathamar holi ka samaan bandh chuka hota hai. nandagaanv ke logoan ke hath mean pichakariyaan hoti haian aur barasane ki mahilaoan ke hath mean lathiyaan, aur shuroo ho jati hai holi.

mathura ke pramukh mandir

bhagavan shrikrishn ke janm sthan par mahamana pandit madan mohan malaviy ji ki prerana se ek vishal mandir bana hai. yah deshi-vidashi paryatakoan ke akarshan ka kendr hai. mandir mean bhagavan shrikrishn ka sundar vigrah hai. samip hi suvidha yukt atithi grah tatha dharmarth ayurvedik chikitsalay hai. atithi grah ke nikat vishal bhagavat bhavan hai. yahaan shodh pith evan bal mandir bhi hai. isake pichhe keshavadev ji ka prachin mandir bhi sthit hai.

nam evan sankshipt vivaran sanbandhit chitr
krishn janmabhoomi

bhagavan shri krishn ki janmabhoomi ka na keval rashdriy star par mahattv hai balki vaishvik star par mathura janapad bhagavan shrikrishn ke janmasthan se hi jana jata hai. aj vartaman mean mahamana pandit madanamohan malaviy ji ki prerana se yah ek bhavy akarshan mandir ke roop mean sthapit hai. paryatan ki drishti se videshoan se bhi bhagavan shrikrishn ke darshan ke lie yahaan pratidin ate haian .... aur padhean

150px
dvarikadhish mandir

mathura nagar ke rajadhiraj bazar mean sthit yah mandir apane saanskritik vaibhav kala evan saundary ke lie anupam hai. gvaliyar raj ke koshadhyaksh seth gokul das parikh ne isaka nirman 1814–15 mean prarambh karaya, jinaki mrityu pashchat inaki sampatti ke uttaradhikari seth lakshmichandr ne mandir ka nirman kary poorn karaya .... aur padhean

dvarikadhish mandir
baanke bihari mandir

baanke bihari mandir mathura zile ke vriandavan dham mean raman reti par sthit hai. yah bharat ke prachin aur prasiddh mandiroan mean se ek hai. baanke bihari krishn ka hi ek roop hai jo isamean pradarshit kiya gaya hai. kaha jata hai ki is mandir ka nirman svami shri haridas ji ke vanshajo ke samoohik prayas se sanvat 1921 ke lagabhag kiya gaya .... aur padhean

baanke bihari mandir
rang nath ji mandir

shri sampraday ke sansthapak ramanujachary ke vishnu-svaroop bhagavan ranganath ya rangaji ke nam se rang ji ka mandir seth lakhamichand ke bhaee seth govindadas aur radhakrishn das dvara nirman karaya gaya tha. unake mahan guru sanskrit ke achary svami rangachary dvara diye gaye madras ke rang nath mandir ki shaili ke manachitr ke adhar par yah bana tha. isaki bahari divar ki lambaee 773 phit aur chau daee 440 phit hai .... aur padhean

rang nath ji mandir
govind dev mandir

govind dev ji ka mandir vriandavan mean sthit vaishnav sanpraday ka mandir hai. mandir ka nirman ee. 1590 mean tatha ise banane mean 5 se 10 varsh lage. mandir ki bhavyata ka anuman is uddharan se lagaya ja sakata hai aurangazeb ne sham ko tahalate hue, dakshin-poorv mean door se dikhane vali raushani ke bare jab poochha to pata chala ki yah chamak vrindavan ke vaibhavashali mandiroan ki hai .... aur padhean

govind dev mandir
isk aaun mandir

vrindavan ke adhunik mandiroan mean yah ek bhavy mandir hai. ise aangrezoan ka mandir bhi kahate haian. kesariya vastroan mean hare rama–hare krishna ki dhun mean tamam videshi mahila–purush yahaan dekhe jate haian. mandir mean radha krishn ki bhavy pratimayean haian aur atyadhunik sabhi suvidhayean haian .... aur padhean

isk aaun mandir vrindavan
madan mohan mandir

shrikrishn bhagavan ke anek namoan mean se ek priy nam madanamohan bhi hai. isi nam se ek mandir mathura zile ke vriandavan dham mean vidyaman hai. vishalakayik nag ke phan par bhagavan charanaghat kar rahe haian. puratanata mean yah mandir govind dev ji ke mandir ke bad ata hai .... aur padhean

madan mohan mandir vrindavan
danaghati mandir

mathura–dig marg par govardhan mean yah mandir sthit hai. girrajaji ki parikrama hetu ane vale lakhoan shrriddhalu is mandir mean poojan karake apani parikrama prarambh kar poorn labh kamate haian. braj mean is mandir ki bahut mahatta hai. yahaan abhi bhi is par se usapar ya usapar se is par karane mean tol taiks dena p data hai. krishnalila ke samay krishn ne dani banakar gopiyoan se premakalah kar nok–jhoank ke sath danalila ki hai .... aur padhean

danaghati
manasi ganga

govardhan gaanv ke bich mean shri manasi ganga hai. parikrama karane mean dayian aur p dati hai aur pooanchhari se lautane par bhi dayian aur isake darshan hote haian. manasi ganga ke poorv disha mean- shri mukharavind, shri lakshminarayan mandir, shri kishorishyam mandir, shri giriraj mandir, shri manmahaprabhu ji ki baithak, shri radhakrishn mandir sthit haian .... aur padhean

manasi ganga
kusum sarovar

mathura mean govardhan se lagabhag 2 kilomitar door radhakund ke nikat sthapaty kala ke namoone ka ek samooh javahar sianh dvara apane pita soorajamal ( ee.1707-1763) ki smriti mean banavaya gaya. kusum sarovar govardhan ke parikrama marg mean sthit ek ramanik sthal hai jo ab sarakar ke sanrakshan mean hai .... aur padhean

kusum sarovar
radha rani mandir

is mandir ko barasane ki la dali ji ka mandir bhi kaha jata hai. radha ka yah prachin mandir madhyakalin hai jo lal aur pile patthar ka bana hai. radha-krishn ko samarpit is bhavy aur sundar mandir ka nirman raja vir sianh ne 1675 mean karavaya tha. bad mean sthaniy logoan dvara pattharoan ko is mandir mean lagavaya. .... aur padhean

radha rani mandir
nand ji mandir

nand ji ka mandir, nandagaanv mean sthit hai. nandagaanv brajamandal ka prasiddh tirth hai. govardhan se 16 mil pashchim uttar kon mean, kosi se 8 mil dakshin mean tatha vrindavan se 28 mil pashchim mean nandagaanv sthit hai. nandagaanv ki pradakshina (parikrama) char mil ki hai. yahaan par krishn lilaoan se sambandhit 56 kund haian. jinake darshan mean 3–4 din lag jate haian .... aur padhean

nand ji mandir



vithika

tika tippani aur sandarbh

  1. aanguttaranikay, 1.167, ekan samayan ayasma mahakachchhano madhurayan viharati gundavane
  2. majjhim.(2.84
  3. mathura ka nivasi, ya vahaan utpann hua ya mathura se aya hua
  4. panini, 4.2.82
  5. panini (4.3.98
  6. 3.1.138 evan vartik 'gavich vinde: sanjnayamh'
  7. patanjali mahabhashy, jild 1,pri. 18, 19 evan 192, 244, jild 3, pri. 299 adi.
  8. mahabharat adi parv 221.46
  9. mahabharat, sabhaparv 14.41-45
  10. mahabharat, sabhaparv 14.49-50 evan 67.
  11. `evan bhavatu kakutsth kriyataan mam shasanamh, rajye tvamabhishekshyami madhostu nagare shubhe. nagaran yamunajushtan tatha janapadanshubhanh yo hi vansh samutpady parthivasy niveshane` uttar. 62,16-18.
  12. `tan putran durvinitan tu drishtva kodhasamanvit:, madhu: s shokamapede n chainan kianchidabravith`-uttar. 61,18.
  13. `ardh chandrapratikasha yamunatirashobhita, shobhita grih-mukhyaishch chatvarapanavithikai:, chaturvarny samayukta nanavanijyashobhita` uttar. 70,11.
  14. yachchatenapura shubhran lavanen kritan mahath, tachchhobhayati shutradhno nanavarnopashobhitamh. aramaishv viharaishch shobhamanan samantat: shobhitaan shobhaniyaishch tathanyairdaivamanushai:` uttar. 70-12-13. uttar0 70,5 (`iyan madhupuri ramya madhura dev-nirmita) mean is nagari ko mathura nam se abhihit kiya gaya hai.
  15. balmiki ramayan,kishkindhakanh d,trichatvarianshah sargah. tatr mlechchhanh pulindaanshch shoorasenaan stathaiv ch. prasthalanh bharataanshchaiv kuruanshch sah madrakaiah॥ 11 kambojayavanaanshchaiv shakanaan pattanani ch. anvikshy daradaanshchaiv himavantan vichinvath ॥ 12
  16. `vayan chaiv maharaj, jarasandhabhayath tada, mathuraan sanparityajy yata dvaravatian purimh` maha. sabha. 14,67. shrimadbhagavat 10,41,20-21-22-23 mean kans ke samay ki mathura ka suandar varnan hai.
  17. `roorodh mathuramety tis bhimrlechchhakotibhi:
  18. ramayan, uttarakaand, sarg 62, pankti 17
  19. krishnadatt vajapeyi, mathura, pri 2
  20. plini, nechural histri, bhag 6, pri 19; tulaniy e, kaniangham, di aianshyeanlatajyographi aph iandiya, (iandolajikal buk haus, varanasi, 1963), pri 315
  21. `kaniangham ne 'klisobera' ki pahachan 'keshavur' ya katara keshavadev ke muhalle se ki hai. yoonani lekhakoan ke samay mean yamuna ki mukhy dhara ya usaki b di shakha vartaman katara ya keshav dev ke poorvi divar ke samip se bahati rahi hogi or usake doosari taraph mathura nagar raha hoga. e, kaniangham, di aianshyeanratajyographi aauph iandiya, iandolajikal buk haus, varanasi, 1963 ee , pri 315.
  22. harivansh puran, 1,54
  23. `sa puri paramodara sattaprakaratorana sphita rashtr samakirna samriddhabalavahana. udyanavan sanpanna susimasupratishthita, praanshuprakaravasana parikhakul mekhala`.
  24. `sanpraptashchapi sayahne soakrooro mathuraan purim` 5,19,9
  25. vishnu-puran, 4,5,101
  26. `shatrughnenapyamitabalaparakramo madhuputro lavano nam rakshasobhihato mathura ch niveshita`
  27. raghuvansh, 6,48
  28. 'yasyavarodhastanachandananaan prakshalanadvariviharakale, kaliandakanya mathuraan gatapi gangormisansaktajalev bhati`
  29. vishnu puran, 1/12/43 mekrindil, aianshyean tiandiya ej diskraibd baee talemi (kalakatta, 1927), pri 98
  30. `madura y soorasena' dekhean-iandiyan entikveri, sankhya 20, pri 375
  31. jems legge, di tehravels aph fahyan, dvitiy sanskaran, 1972), pri 42
  32. thamas vatrs, an yuv aaunh chvags tehravels in iandiya, dilli, pratham sanskaran, 1961 ee) bhag 1, pri 301
  33. haraman jaikobi, sekred buks aauph di eest, bhag 45, pri 112
  34. manusmriti, bhag 2, shlok 18 aur 20
  35. ye vasanti mahabhage mathurayamitare jana:. teapi yaanti paramaan siddhian matprasadann sanshay: varah puran, pri 852, shlok 20
  36. mathurayaan mahapurya ye vasanti shuchivrata:. balibhikshapradataro devaste naravigraha:.. tatraiv, shlok 22
  37. mathuramamandamamh prapy shraddhan kritva yathavidhi. tripti prayaanti pitaro yavasthityagrajanman:.. tatraiv, shlok 19
  38. padmapuran, pri 600, shlok 53
  39. varah puran, adhyay 152
  40. govardhano girivaro yamuna ch mahanadi. tayormadhye puroramya mathura lokavishruta.. varahapuran, adhyay 165, shlok 23
  41. `shitiryojananatan mathuraan matr mandalamh.' tatraiv, adhyay 158, shlok1
  42. vianshatiryojananaan tu mathuran parimandalamh. tanmadhye mathura nam puri sarvottamottama॥ naradiy puran uttar, 79. 20-21
  43. varah puran (adhyay 153 evan 161. 6-10
  44. naradiy puran (uttarardh, 79.10-18
  45. grausakrit mathura, pri. 76
  46. vishnupuran 5.6.28-40, naradiy puran, uttarardh 80.6,8 evan 77)
  47. padmapuran patal, 75.8-14
  48. padmapuran (4.69.9)
  49. matsyapuran (13.38)
  50. vishnupuran (5.11.15-24
  51. varah puran (adhyay 153 evan 161. 6-10
  52. naradiy puran (uttarardh, 79.10-18
  53. grausakrit mathura, pri. 76

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