ब्रज

braj vishay soochi


sankshipt parichay
braj
braj ke vibhinn drishy
vivaran 'bhagavat' mean ‘braj’ kshetr vishesh ko iangit karate hue hi prayukt hua hai. vahaan ise ek chhote gram ki sanjna di gee hai. usamean ‘pur’ se chhota ‘gram’ aur usase bhi chhoti basti ko ‘braj’ kaha gaya hai. 16vian shatabdi mean ‘braj’ pradesh ke arth mean hokar ‘brajamandal’ ho gaya aur tab usaka akar 84 kos ka mana jane laga tha.
braj kshetr aj jise ham braj kshetr manate haian usaki dishaaian, uttar disha mean palaval (hariyana), dakshin mean gvaliyar (madhy pradesh), pashchim mean bharatapur (rajasthan) aur poorv mean eta (uttar pradesh) ko chhooti haian.
braj ke keandr mathura evan vrindavan
braj ke van kotavan, kamyavan, kumudavan, kokilavan, khadiravan, talavan, bahulavan, biharavan, belavan, bhadravan, bhaandiravan, madhuvan, mahavan, lauhajanghavan evan vrindavan
bhasha hiandi aur brajabhasha
pramukh parv evan tyohar holi, krishn janmashtami, yam dvitiya, guru poornima, radhashtami, govardhan pooja, gopashtami, nandotsav evan kans mela
pramukh darshaniy sthal krishn janmabhoomi, dvarikadhish mandir, rajakiy sangrahalay, baanke bihari mandir, ranganath ji mandir, govindadev mandir, isk aaun mandir, madan mohan mandir, danaghati mandir, manasi ganga, kusum sarovar, radha rani mandir, nand ji mandir, vishram ghat , daooji mandir
sanbandhit lekh braj chaurasi kos ki yatra
any janakari braj ke van–upavan, kunj–nikunj, shri yamuna v giriraj atyant mohak haian. pakshiyoan ka madhur svar ekaanki sthali ko madak evan manohar banata hai. moroan ki bahutayat tatha unaki pioo–pioo ki avaz se vatavaran gunjayaman rahata hai.

braj shabd ke arth ka kal kramanusar hi vikas hua hai. vedoan aur ramayan-mahabharat ke kal mean jahaan isaka prayog ‘goshth’-'go-sthan’ jaise laghu sthal ke liye hota tha. vahaan pauranik kal mean ‘gop-basti’ jaise kuchh b de sthan ke liye kiya jane laga. us samay tak yah shabd ek pradesh ke lie prayukt n hokar kshetr vishesh ka hi prayojan spasht karata tha. bhagavat mean ‘braj kshetr' vishesh ko iangit karate hue hi prayukt hua hai. vahaan ise ek chhote gram ki sanjna di gee hai. usamean ‘pur’ se chhota ‘gram’ aur usase bhi chhoti basti ko ‘braj’ kaha gaya hai. 16vian shatabdi mean ‘braj’ pradesh ke arth mean hokar ‘brajamandal’ ho gaya aur tab usaka akar 84 kos ka mana jane laga tha. us samay mathura nagar ‘braj’ mean sammilit nahian mana jata tha. sooradas tatha any brajabhasha kaviyoan ne ‘braj’ aur mathura ka prithak roop mean hi kathan kiya hai.

krishn upasak sampradayoan aur brajabhasha kaviyoan ke karan jab braj sanskriti aur brajabhasha ka kshetr vistrit hua tab braj ka akar bhi suvistrit ho gaya tha. us samay mathura nagar hi nahian, balki usase door-door ke bhoo-bhag, jo braj sanskriti aur brajabhasha se prabhavit the, vraj antargat man liye gaye the. vartaman kal mean mathura nagar sahit mathura zile ka adhikaansh bhag tatha rajasthan ke dig aur kamyavan ka kuchh bhag, jahaan se brajayatra gujarati hai, braj kaha jata hai. braj sanskriti aur braj bhasha ka kshetr aur bhi vistrit hai. ukt samast bhoo-bhag ke prachin nam, madhuvan, shoorasen, madhura, madhupuri, mathura aur mathura mandal the tatha adhunik nam braj ya brajamandal haian. yadyapi inake arth-bodh aur akar-prakar mean samay-samay par antar hota raha hai. is bhoo-bhag ki dharmik, rajanitik, aitihasik aur saananskritik paranpara atyant gauravapoorn rahi hai.

'vraj' shabd ki paribhasha

shri shivaram apte ke sanskrit hindi kosh mean 'vraj' shabd ki paribhasha- prastuti [1]

vrajh- (bhvadigan parasmaipad vrajati) vrajah-(vrajh+k)
  • 1.jana, chalana, pragati karana-navinitarvrajadh dhuryaiah[2]
  • 2.padharana, pahuanchana, darshan karana-mamekan sharanan braj-bhagavadgita[3]
  • 3.vida hona, seva se nivritt hona, pichhe hatana
  • 4.(samay ka) bitana-iyan vrajati yamini tyaj narendr nidrarasamh vikramaankadevacharit.[4]
  • anu-
    • 1.bad mean jana, anugaman karana[5]
    • 2.abhyas karana, sampann karana
    • 3.sahara lena,
  • a-ana, pahuanchana,
  • pari-bhikshu ya sadhu ke roop mean idhar udhar ghoomana, sannyasi ya parivrajak ho jana,
    • 1.nirvasit hona,
    • 2.sansarik vasanaoan ko chho d dena, chauthe ashram mean pravisht hona, arthath sannyasi ho jana[6]
  • 1.samuchchay, sangrah, rev d, samooh, netravrajaahpaurajanasy tasminh vihay sarvannripatinnipetuah[7]
  • 2.gvaloan ke rahane ka sthan
  • 3.goshth, gaushala-shishupalavadh 2.64
  • 4.avas, vishramasthal
  • 5.s dak, marg
  • 6.badal,
  • 7.mathura ke nikat ek zila.
    • sam.-agnana,
    • yuvati:-(stri.) vraj mean rahane vali stri, gvalan-bhami. [8],
    • ajiram-goshala,
    • kishor:-nath:, mohan:, var:, vallbh: krishn ke visheshan.
vrajanamh (vraj+lyuth) vrajya (vrajh+kyaph+taph)
  • 1.ghoomana, phirana, yatra karana
  • 2.nirvasan, desh nikala
  • 1.sadhu ya bhikshu ke roop mean idhar udhar ghoomana,
  • 2.akraman, hamala, prasthan,
  • 3.khe d, samuday, janajati ya qabila, sanmpraday,
  • 4.rangabhoomi, natyashala.

bhaugolik sthiti

  • aj jise ham braj kshetr manate haian, usaki dishaaian, uttar disha mean palaval (hariyana), dakshin mean gvaliyar (madhy pradesh), pashchim mean bharatapur (rajasthan) aur poorv mean eta (uttar pradesh) ko chhooti haian.
  • brajabhasha, riti-rivaj, pahanava aur aitihasik tathy is sima ke sahaj adhar haian.
  • mathura-vrindavan braj ke kendr haian.
  • mathura-vrindavan ki bhaugolik sthiti is prakar hai- eshiya > bharat > uttar pradesh > mathura
  • uttar- 27° 41' - poorv -77° 41'
  • marg sthiti- rashtriy rajamarg sankhya- 2
  • dilli-agara marg par dilli se 146 kimi

braj kshetr

kedaranath mandir, kamyavan

braj ko yadi braj-bhasha bolane vale kshetr se paribhashit karean to yah bahut vistrit kshetr ho jata hai. isamean panjab se maharashtr tak aur rajasthan se bihar tak ke log bhi brajabhasha ke shabdoan ka prayog bolachal mean pratidin karate haian. krishn se to poora vishv parichit hai. aisa lagata hai ki braj ki simaaian nirdharit karane ka kary asan nahian hai, phir bhi braj ki simaean to haian hi aur unaka nirdharan bhi kiya gaya hai. pahale yah pata lagaean ki braj shabd aya kahaan se aur kitana purana hai? vartaman mathura tatha usake as-pas ka pradesh, jise braj kaha jata hai; prachin kal mean shoorasen janapad ke nam se prasiddh tha. ee. satavian shati mean jab chini yatri hven-tsaang yahaan aya tab usane likha ki mathura rajy ka vistar 5,000 li (lagabhag 833 mil) tha. dakshin-poorv mean mathura rajy ki sima jejakabhukti (jijhauti) ki pashchimi sima se tatha dakshin-pashchim mean malav rajy ki uttari sima se milati rahi hogi. vartaman samay mean braj shabd se sadharanataya mathura zila aur usake as-pas ka bhoo-bhag samajha jata hai. pradesh ya janapad ke roop mean braj ya brij shabd adhik prachin nahian hai. shoorasen janapad ki simaean samay-samay par badalati rahian. isaki rajadhani madhura ya mathura nagari thi. kalaantar mean mathura nam se hi yah janapad vikhyat hua.

vaidik sahity mean isaka prayog pray: pashuoan ke samooh, unake charane ke sthan (gochar bhoomi) ya unake ba de ke arth mean milata hai. ramayan, mahabharat tatha paravarti sanskrit sahity mean bhi pray: inhian arthoan mean braj ka shabd milata hai. puranoan mean kahian-kahian sthan ke arth mean braj ka prayog aya hai, aur vah bhi sanbhavat: gokul ke liye. aisa pratit hota hai ki janapad ya pradesh ke arth mean braj ka vyapak prayog eesvi chaudahavian shati ke bad se prarambh hua. us samay mathura pradesh mean krishn-bhakti ki ek nee lahar uthi, jise janasadharan tak pahuanchane ke liye yahaan ki shauraseni prakrit se ek komal-kaant bhasha ka avirbhav hua. isi samay ke lagabhag mathura janapad ki, jisamean anek van upavan evan pashuoan ke liye b de braj ya charagah the, braj (bhasha mean braj) sanjna prachalit huee hogi.

braj pradesh mean avirbhoot nee bhasha ka nam bhi svabhavat: brajabhasha rakha gaya. is komal bhasha ke madhyam dvara braj ne us sahity ki srishti ki jisane apane madhury-ras se bharat ke ek b de bhag ko aplavit kar diya. is varnan se pata chalata hai ki satavian shati mean mathura rajy ke antargat vartaman mathura-agara ziloan ke atirikt adhunik bharatapur tatha dhaulapur zile aur oopar madhy bharat ka uttari lagabhag adha bhag raha hoga. prachin shoorasen ya mathura janapad ka prarambh mean jitana vistar tha usamean hven-tsaang ke samay tak kya her-pher hote gaye, isake sanbandh mean ham nishchit roop se nahian kah sakate, kyoanki hamean prachin sahity adi mean aise praman nahian milate jinake adhar par vibhinn kaloan mean is janapad ki lambaee-chau daee ka thik pata lag sake.

adhunik simaaian

satavian shati ke bad se mathura rajy ki simaaian ghatati geean. isaka pradhan karan samip ke kannauj rajy ki unnati thi, jisamean mathura tatha any p dosi rajyoan ke badhe bhoo-bhag sammilit ho gaye. prachin sahityik ullekhoan se jo kuchh pata chalata hai, vah yah hai ki shoorasen ya shaurasen athava mathura pradesh ke uttar mean kurudesh (adhunik dilli aur usake as-pas ka pradesh) tha, jisaki rajadhani indraprasth tatha hastinapur thi. dakshin mean chedi rajy (adhunik buandelakhand tatha usake samip ka kuchh bhag) tha, jisaki rajadhani ka nam tha sooktimati nagar. poorv mean panchal rajy (adhunik ruhelakhand) tha, jo do bhagoan mean banta hua tha- uttar panchal tatha dakshin panchal. uttar vale rajy ki rajadhani ahichchhatr (bareli zile mean vartaman ramanagar) aur dakshin vale ki kaanpily (adhunik kanpil, zila pharrookhabad) thi. shoorasen ke pashchim vala janapad matsy (adhunik alavar riyasat tatha jayapur ka poorvi bhag) tha. isaki rajadhani virat nagar (adhunik vairat, jayapur mean) thi.

braj namakaran aur usaka abhipray

gokul ghat, gokul

koshakaroan ne braj ke tin arth batalaye haian - (gayoan ka khirak), marg aur vriand (jhuand) - goshthadhvanivaha vraj:[9] isase bhi gayoan se sanbandhit sthan ka hi bodh hota hai. sayan ne samanyat: 'vraj' ka arth goshth kiya hai. goshth ke do prakar haian :- 'khirak`- vah sthan jahaan gayean, bail, bachh de adi ko baandha jata hai.

gochar bhoomi- jahaan gayean charati haian. in sab se bhi gayoan ke sthan ka hi bodh hota hai. is sanskrit shabd `vraj` se braj bhasha ka shabd `braj' bana hai.

pauranik sahity mean braj (vraj) shabd goshala, go-sthan, gochar- bhoomi ke arthoan mean prayukt hua, athava gayoan ke khirak (ba da) ke arth mean aya hai. `yan tvaan janaso bhoomi athasancharanti gav ushnamiv vrajan yavishth.' (10 - 4 - 2) arthat- shit se pi dit gayean ushnata prapti ke lie in goshthoan mean pravesh karati haian.`vyoo vrajasy tamaso dvarochchhantiravranchhuchay: pavaka.(4 - 51 - 2) arthat - prajvalit agni 'vraj' ke dvaroan ko kholati hai. yajurved mean gayoan ke charane ke sthan ko `vraj' aur goshala ko goshth kaha gaya hai - `vrajan gachchh goshthanh`[10] shukl yajurved mean sundar siango vali gayoan ke vicharan-sthan se `vraj' ka sanket milata hai. atharvaved' mean ek sthan par `vraj' spashtat: goshth ke arth mean prayukt hua hai. `ayan ghasoan ayan vraj ih vatsa nivadhniy:'[11] arthat yah ghas hai aur yah vraj hai, jahaan ham bachh di ko baandhate haian. usi ved mean ek sanpoorn sookt[12] hi gaushalaoan se sanbandhit hai.

vim taksham, rajakiy sangrahalay, mathura

shrimadbhagavat aur harivansh puran mean `vraj' shabd ka prayog gop-basti ke arth mean hi hua hai, - `vraje vasanh kimakasenh madhuparya ch keshav:'[13] tad vrajasthanamadhikamh shubhe kananavritamh[14] skand puran mean maharshi shaandily ne `vraj' shabd ka arth `vyapti' karate hue use vyapak brahm ka roop kaha hai,[15] kiantu yah, arth vraj ki adhyatmikata se sanbandhit hai. kuchh vidvanoan ne nimn sanbhavanaean bhi prakat ki haian - bauddh kal mean mathura ke nikat `veranj' namak ek sthan tha. kuchh vidvanoan ki prarthana par gautam buddh vahaan padhare the. vah sthan veranj hi kadachit kalaantar mean `viraj' ya `vraj' ke nam se prasiddh ho gaya. yamuna ko `viraja' bhi kahate haian. viraja ka kshetr hone se mathura mandal `viraj' ya `vraj` kaha jane laga. mathura ke yuddhoparaant jab dvaraka nasht ho gee, tab shrikrishn ke prapautr vajr (vajranabh) mathura ke raja hue the. unake nam par mathura mandal bhi 'vajr pradesh` ya `vraj pradesh' kaha jane laga. namakaran se sanbandhit ukt sanbhavanaoan ka bhasha vijnan adi ki drishti se koee pramanik adhar nahian hai, at: unamean se kisi ko bhi svikar karana sanbhav nahian hai. vedoan se lekar puranoan tak braj ka sanbandh gayoan se raha hai; chahe vah gayoan ke baandhane ka ba da ho, chahe goshala ho, chahe gochar- bhoomi ho aur chahe gop- basti ho. bhagavat kar ki drishti mean goshth, gokul aur braj samanarthak shabd haian.

bhagavat ke adhar par sooradas adi kaviyoan ki rachanaoan mean bhi braj isi arth mean prayukt hua hai; isalie `veraj', `viraja' aur `vajr` se braj ka sanbandh jo dana samichin nahian hai. mathura aur usaka nikatavarti bhoo-bhag pragaitihasik kal se hi apane saghan vanoan, vistrit charagahoan, suandar goshthoan or dudharoo gayoan ke lie prasiddh raha hai. bhagavan shrikrishn ka janm yadyapi mathura mean hua tha, tathapi rajanitik karanoan se unhean gupt riti se yamuna par ki gop basti (gokul) mean bhej diya gaya tha. unaka shaishav evan balyakal goparaj nand aur unaki patni yashoda ke lalan-palan mean bita tha. unaka sannidhy gopoan, gopiyoan evan go-dhan ke sath raha tha. vastut: vedoan se lekar puranoan tak braj ka sanbandh adhikatar gayoan se raha hai; chahe vah gayoan ke charane ki `gochar bhoomi' ho chahe unhean baandhane ka khirak (ba da) ho, chahe goshala ho, aur chahe gop-basti ho. bhagavatkar ki drishti mean vraj, goshth or gokul samanarthak shabd haian.

pauranik itihas

braj
shoorasen janapad ka naksha
shoorasen janapad ka naksha
krishn janmabhoomi, mathura
krishn janmabhoomi, mathura
braj ki gau (gayean)
braj ki gau (gayean)
govind dev mandir, vrindavan
yamuna nadi
yamuna nadi
neminath tirthankar
neminath tirthankar
radha-krishn
radha-krishn
maury kalin mrinmoorti
maury kalin mrinmoorti
shuang kalin mrinmoorti
shuang kalin mrinmoorti
kanishk
kanishk
rrishabhanath
rrishabhanath
jain tirthankar
jain tirthankar
ganesh
ganesh
buland daravaza, fatehapur sikari
buland daravaza, fatehapur sikari
kusum sarovar
kusum sarovar
mor
mor
ahoee ashtami
ahoee ashtami
akabar, tanasen aur svami haridas
akabar, tanasen aur svami haridas
baansuri
baansuri
jakiy jain sangrahalay, mathura
rajakiy jain sangrahalay, mathura

ary aur unaka praranbhik nivas

ary aur unaka praranbhik nivas (vaidik sanskriti) jise 'sapt sianghav' desh kaha gaya hai, vah bhag bharatavarsh ka uttar pashchimi bhag tha. manyataoan ke anusar yahi srishti ka aranbhik sthal aur aryoan ka adi desh hai. sapt sianghav desh ka phailav kashmir, pakistan aur panjab ke adhikaansh bhag mean tha. ary, uttari dhruv, madhy eshiya athava kisi any sthan se bharat aye hoan, bharatiy manyata mean poorn roop se svikary nahian hai. bharat mean hi nahian vishv bhar mean sankhya 'sat' ka ashcharyajanak mahattv hai. jaise- sat sur, sat rang, sapt-rrishi, sat sagar adi isi tarah sat nadiyoan ke karan sapt sianghav desh ka namakaran hua tha.

adim kal (poorv krishn kal)

raja kuru ke nam par hi sarasvati nadi ke nikat ka rajy kurukshetr kaha gaya. prachin samay ke rajaoan ki vanshavali ka adhyayan karane se pata chalata hai ki panchal raja sudas ke samay mean bhim satvat yadav ka beta aandhak bhi raja raha hoga. is aandhak ke bare mean pata chalata hai ki shoorasen rajy ke samakalin rajy ka svami tha. aandhak apane pita bhim ke saman vir n tha. is yuddh se jnat hota hai ki vah bhi sudas se har gaya tha.

krishn kal mean braj

shrikrishn ke samay ka nirdharan vibhinn vidvanoan ne kiya hai. anek itihasakar krishn ko aitihasik charitr nahian manate. yooan bhi astha ke prashnoan ka hal itihas mean talashane ka koee arth nahian hai. apane jo itihas ki samagri aksar khadgali hogi vah sanbhavataya krishn ki aitihasita par anek prashn chihn lagati hogi. hamara prayas hai ki jo jaisa upalabdh hai. ap tak pahuanchayean. kee vidvan shrikrishn ko 3500 varsh se adhik prachin nahian manate haian. bharatiy manyata ke anusar krishn ka kal 5000 varsh se bhi kuchh adhik purana lagata hai. isaka vaijnanik aur aitihasik adhar bhi kuchh vidvanoan ne siddh karane ka prayas kiya hai.

maury kal mean braj

maury shasakoan ne yatayat ki suvidha tatha vyaparik unnati ke lie anek badi़ s dakoan ka nirman karavaya. sabase b di s dak pataliputr se purushapur (peshavar) tak jati thi, jisaki lanbaee lagabhag 1,850 mil thi. yah s dak rajagrih, kashi, prayag, saket, kaushambi, kannauj, mathura, hastinapur, shakal, takshashila aur pushkalavati hoti huee peshavar jati thi. maigasthaniz़ ke anusar is s dak par adh-adh kos ke aantar par patthar lage hue the. maigasthaniz sanbhavat: isi marg se hokar pataliputr pahuancha tha. is badi़ s dak ke atirikt mauryoan ke dvara any anek margoan ka nirman bhi karaya gaya.

Blockquote-open.gif prachin sahity mean madhura ya mathura ka nam to bahut milata hai, par krishnapur ya keshavapur namak nagar ka prithak ullekh kahian nahian prapt hota hai. atah thik yahi jan p data hai ki yoonani lekhakoan ne bhool se mathura aur krishnapur [keshavapur] ko, jo vastav mean ek hi the, alag-alag likh diya hai.--- shri krishnadatt vajapeyi Blockquote-close.gif

alutvi ke anusar mahamood gazanavi ke samay mean yamuna par ajakal ke mahavan ke pas ek rajy ki rajadhani thi, jahaan ek sudridh durg bhi tha. vahaan ke raja kulachand ne mathura ki raksha ke lie mahamood se mahasangram kiya tha. sanbhavatah yah koee prithak nagar nahian tha, varanh vah mathura ka hi ek bhag tha. us samay mean yamuna nadi ke donoan hi or bane hue mathura nagar ki basti thi [yah mat adhik tarkasangat pratit hota hai]. chini yatri fahyan aur hven-tsaang ne bhi yamuna nadi ke donoan hi or bane hue bauddh sangharamoan ka vivaran kiya hai. is prakar maigasthaniz ka klisobora (krishnapura) koee prithak nagar nahian varanh us samay ke vishal mathura nagar ka hi ek bhag tha, jise ab gokul-mahavan ke nam se jana jata hai. is sanbandh mean shri krishnadatt vajapeyi ke mat tarkasangat lagata hai- prachin sahity mean madhura ya mathura ka nam to bahut milata hai, par krishnapur ya keshavapur namak nagar ka prithak ullekh kahian nahian prapt hota hai. atah thik yahi jan p data hai ki yoonani lekhakoan ne bhool se mathura aur krishnapur [keshavapur] ko, jo vastav mean ek hi the, alag-alag likh diya hai. bharatiy logoan ne maigasthaniz ko bataya hoga ki shoorasen janapad ki rajadhani mathura keshavapuri hai. usane un donoan namoan ko ek doosare se prithak samajh kar unaka ullekh alag-alag nagar ke roop mean kiya hoga. yadi shoorasen janapad mean mathura aur krishnapur nam ke do prasiddh nagar hote, to maigasthaniz ke kuchh samay pahale uttar bharat ke janapadoan ke jo varnan bharatiy sahity [vishesh kar bauddh evan jain grantho] mean milate haian, unamean mathura nagar ke sath krishnapur ya keshavapur ka bhi nam milata hai.

shuang kal mean braj

shuangavananshiy shasak vaidik dharm ko manate the. pushyamitr ke dvara do 'ashvamedh yajn' karane ka ullekh ayodhya se prapt ek lekh mean milata hai.[16] patanjali ke mahabhashy mean pushyamitr ke yajn ka ullekh hai, usase pata chalata hai ki svayan patanjali ne is yajn mean bhag liya tha. phir bhi shuang shasanakal mean bauddh dharm ki kafi unnati huee. bodhagaya mandir ki vedika ka nirman bhi inake shasan-kal mean hi hua. ahichchhatr ke raja indramitr tatha mathura ke shasak brahmamitr aur usaki rani nagadevi, in sab ke nam bodhagaya ki vedika mean utkirn hai.[17] isase jnat hota hai ki sudoor panchal aur shoorasen janapad mean is kal mean bauddh dharm ke prati bhi astha thi. mahabhashy mean patanjali ne mathura ka vivaran dete hue likha hai, yahaan ke log pataliputr ke nagarikoan ki apeksha adhik sapannn the.[18] shuang kal mean uttari bharat ke mukhy nagaroan mean mathura ki bhi ginati hoti thi.

shak kushan kal mean braj

kushanoan ke ek saradar ka nam kujul kadaphaisis tha. usane qabul aur kandahar par adhikar kar liya. poorv mean yoonani shasakoan ki shakti kamazor ho gee thi, kujul ne isaka labh uthakar apana prabhav yahaan badhana shuroo kar diya. pahlavoan ko parajit kar usane apane shasan ka vistar panjab ke pashchim tak sthapit kar liya. mathura mean is shasak ke taanbe ke kuchh sikke prapt hue haianan. mathura mean kushanoan ke dev kul hone tatha vim ki moorti prapt hone se yah anuman kiya ja sakata hai ki mathura mean vim ka nivas kuchh samay tak avashy raha hoga aur yah nagar kushan samrajy ke mukhy kendroan mean se ek raha hoga. vim ne rajy ki poorvi sima banaras tak badha li. is vistrit rajy ka pramukh kendr mathura nagar bana. chiniyoan ki pauranik manyata ke anusar vim ke uttari samrajy ki pramukh rajadhani hiandukush‎ ke uttar tukhar desh mean thi. bharatiy rajyoan ka shasan 'kshatrapoan' se karaya jata tha. vim ka vishal samrajy ek taraph chin ke samrajy ko lagabhag chhoota tha to doosari taraph usaki simaean dakshin ke satavahan rajy ko chhooti thi. itane vishal evan vistrit rajy ke lie pradeshik shasakoan ka hona bhi avashyak tha.

gupt kal mean braj

chandragupt vikramadity ke samay ke tin lekh mathura nagar se mile haian. pahala lekh (mathura sangrahalay san. 1931) gupt sanvat 61 (380 ee.) ka hai yah mathura nagar mean rangeshvar mahadev ke samip ek bagichi se prapt hua hai. shilalekh lal patthar ke ek khanbhe par hai. yah sambhavatah chandragupt ke paanchave rajyavarsh mean likha gaya tha. is shilalekh mean uditachary dvara upamiteshvar aur kapileshvar namak shiv-pratimaoan ki pratishthapana ka varnan hai. khanbhe par oopar trishool tatha niche dandadhari rudr (lakulish) ki moorti hai.

chandragupt ke shasan-kal ke upalabdh lekhoan mean yah lekh sabase prachin hai. isase tatkalin mathura mean shaiv dharm ke hone ki pushti ke hoti hai. any donoan shilalekh mathura ke katara keshavadev se mile haian. inamean se ek shilalekh (mathura sangrahalay san. kyoo. 5) mean maharaj gupt se lekar chandragupt vikramadity tak ki vanshavali aankit hai. lekh mean ant mean chandragupt dvara koee b da dharmik kary kiye jane ka anuman hota hai. lekh ka aantim bhag khandit hai, is karan yah nishchit roop se kahana kathin hai. bahut sanbhav hai ki maharajadhiraj chandragupt ke dvara shrikrishn janmasthan par ek bhavy mandir ka nirman karaya gaya ho, jisaka vivaran is shilalekh mean rahe hoanange.[19] tisara shilalekh (mathura sangrahalay san. 3835) krishn janmasthan ki safaee karate samay 1954 ee.. mean mila hai. yah lekh bahut khandit hai. isamean gupt-vanshavali ke praranbhik aansh ke atirikt shesh bhag khandit hai.

madhy kal mean braj

gupt samrajy ke patan ke bad lagabhag adhi shatabdi tak uttar bharat ki rajanitik sthiti asthir rahi. chhote-b de raja apani shakti badhane lage. samrat harshavardhan ke shasan mean ane tak koee aisi shaktishali kendriy satta n thi, jo chhote-chhote rajyoan ko susangathit karake shasit karati. chhathi shati ke madhy mean maukhari, vardhan, gurjan, maitrak kalachuri adi rajavanshoan ka abhyuday prarambh hua. mathura pradesh par anek vanshoan ka rajy madhyakal mean raha. yahaan anek chhote b de rajy sthapit ho gaye the aur unake shasak apani shakti badhane ke prayas mean apas l d rahe the. us samay desh mean do rajavanshoan ka uday hua, maukhari rajavansh aur vardhan rajavansh.

maukhari vansh ka pratham raja eeshanavarman tha, vah b da shaktishali raja tha. gupt samrajy ke patan ke bad lagabhag 554 ee. mean maukhari shasak eeshanavarman ne 'maharajadhiraj' upadhi dharan ki. eeshanavarman ke samay mean maukhari rajy ki simaean poorv mean magadh tak, dakshin mean madhy praant aur aandhr tak, pashchim mean malava tatha uttar-pashchim mean thaneshvar rajy tak thi. usake rajy ki do rajadhaniyaan thian,

  1. kannauj
  2. mathura

uttar madhy kal mean braj

prithviraj aur jayachandr ko san 1191 evan san 1194 ee. mean harane ke bad muhammad gori ne bharat mean muslim samrajy ki nianv dali aur apane jite gaye rajy ki vyavastha apane senapati qutubuddin ko sauanpakar khud vapas chala gaya. muhammad gori ke jivan kal tak qutubuddin usake adhinasth shasak ban kar muslim samrajy ko vyavasthit karata raha. san 1206 ee.mean gori ki mrityu ke bad qutubuddin bharat ke muslim samrajy ka pratham svatantr shasak bana; usane dilli ko rajadhani banaya. shuroo se hi dilli muslim samrajy ki rajadhani rahi; aur bad tak bani rahi. mugal kal mean akabar ne agara ko rajadhani banaya ; phir usake pautr shahajahaan ne dobara dilli ko rajadhani bana diya.

khilaji vansh mean braj

alauddin khilaji vansh ka sabase mashahoor sultan tha. apane chacha ki hatya kara kar vah shasak bana aur poore apane jivan kal mean vah yuddh kar rajy ka vistar karata raha. vah kutil kroor aur hiansak pravritti ka bahut hi mahattvakaankshi aur hoshiyar sena pradhan tha 20 varsh ke apane shasan kal mean usane lagabhag sare bharat ko apane shasan mean kar liya tha. usane hi devagiri, gujarat, rajasthan, malava aur dakshin ke adhikatar rajyoan par sabase pahale muslim shasan sthapit kiya. chittau d ki rani padmini ke lie rajapootoan se yuddh kiya, is yuddh mean bahut se rajapoot nar-nariyoan ne balidan diya. shasak banate hi usaki kudrishti mathura ki taraph huee. usane san 1297 mean mathura ke asikunda ghat ke pas ke purane mandir ko to d kar ek masjid banavaee, kalantar mean yamuna ki badh se yah masjid nasht ho gee.

mugal kal mean braj

mugaloan ke shasan ke prarambh se sultanoan ke shasan ke aantim samay tak dilli hi bharat ki rajadhani rahi thi. sultan siankadar lodi ke shasan ke uttar kal mean usaki rajanitik gatividhiyoan ka kendr dilli ke bajay agara ho gaya tha. yahaan usaki sainik chhavani thi. mugal rajy ke sansthapak babar ne shuroo se hi agara ko apani rajadhani banaya. babar ke bad humayooan aur sherashah soori aur usake uttaradhikariyoan ne bhi agara ko hi rajadhani banaya. mugal samrat akabar ne poorv vyavastha ko qayam rakhate hue agara ko rajadhani ka gaurav pradan kiya. is karan agara ki b di unnati huee aur vah mugal samrajy ka sabase b da nagar ban gaya tha. kuchh samay bad akabar ne fatehapur sikari ko rajadhani banaya.

mugal samrat akabar ki udar dharmik niti ke phalasvaroop brajamandal mean vaishnav dharm ke naye mandir-devalay banane lage aur purane ka jirnoanddhar hone laga, tab jain dharmavalanbiyoan mean bhi utsah ka sanchar hua tha. gujarat ke vikhyat shvetaanbarachary hir vijay soori se samrat akabar b de prabhavit hue the. samrat ne unhean b de adarapoovark sikari bulaya, ve unase dharmopadesh suna karate the. is karan mathura-agara adi braj pradesh mean base hue jainiyoan mean atm gaurav ka bhav jagrit ho gaya tha. ve log apane mandiroan ke nirman athava jirnoddhar ke lie prayatnashil ho gaye the.

jat maratha kal mean braj

mugal saltanat ke akhari samay mean jo shaktiyaan ubhari; jinhoanne brajamandal ke itihas mean mahattvapoorn bhoomika nibhaee, un jat aur maratha saradaroan ke nam itihas mean bahut mashahoor haian. jatoan ka itihas purana hai. jat mukhyatah kheti karane vali jati hai; lekin aurangazeb ke atyacharoan aur nirankush pravriti ne unhean ek b di sainy shakti ka roop de diya. udhar marathoan ne chhatrapati shivaji ke netritv mean auraganzeb ko bhishan chunauti di aur saphalata bhi prapt ki jisase maratha bhi uttar bharat mean mashahoor hue.
soorajamal ka moolyaankan
braj ke jat rajaoan mean soorajamal sabase prasiddh shasak, kushal senani, sahasi yoddha aur saphal rajanitijn tha. usane jatoan mean sabase pahale raja ki padavi dharan ki thi; aur ek shaktishali hindoo rajy ka sanchalan kiya tha. usaka rajy vistrit tha, jisamean dig-bharatapur ke atirikt mathura, agara, dhaulapur, hatharas, aligadh, eta, mainapuri, gu dagaanv, rohatak, reva di, farrookhanagar aur merath ke zile the. ek or yamuna mean ganga tak aur doosari or chanbal tak ka sara pradesh usake rajy mean sammilit tha.

svatantrata sangram 1857 mean braj

mathura ke shasan ki lagam bharatiy sainikoan ke hathoan mean a gayi thi. yooropiyan bangale aur kalaktri-bhavan sab ag ko samarpit kar mathura jel ke bandi karagar se mukt ho gaye the. videshi hukoomat ko mitakar svadhinata ka shankhanad karane vale, aantim mugal samrat bahadurashah jafar ke hath mazaboot karane bharat mata ke viplavi sapoot garvonmat bhav se machal p de aur chal p de kosi ki disha mean sherashah soori raj marg se, jahaan aangrezi sena dilli ki or se mathura ki or ane vale bharatiy krantiviroan ke tiddi daloan ko rokane ke uddeshy se jama thi. thaanrnahil svayan p dav dale p da tha. yah sanasanikhej kahani kisi kalpit upanyas ka hissa nahian hai, balki ek aitihasik dastavej hai, jo khud aangrez kalaktar ki qalam se pashchimottar prant ke agara sthit tatkalin gavarnameant sekretari si. bi. th aaurnahil ke nam 5 joon 1857 ko likha gaya tha.

svatantrata sangram 1920-1947 mean braj

san 1921 ke prarambh hone par asahayog aandolan mean teji ane lagi tatha mathura zile ke gaanvoan evan kasboan mean bhi isaki lahar phailane lagi. a diang, govardhan, vrindavan evan kosi adi sthanoan mean bhi rashdriy halachal prarambh ho gayi. govardhan mean rashdriy chetana ko badhane mean sarvashri krishnaballabh sharma, brajakishor, ramachandr bhatt evan apang baboo adi pramukh the. vridavan mean sarvashri gosvami chhabile lal, narayan bi.e., purushottam lal, moolachand sarraph adi ne pramukh bhag liya. asahayog andolan tivr karane ke lie 9 agast sanh 1921 ko lala lajapat ray ke sabhapatitv mean vrindavan ki mirjapur vali dharmashala mean ek vishal sabha huee thi. isamean hazaroan ki sankhya mean janata upasthit thi.

prajataantrik vyavastha

ashcharyajanak hai ki krishn ke samay se pahale hi mathura mean ek prakar ki prajataantrik vyavastha thi. aandhak aur vrishni, do sangh paroksh matadan prakriya se apana mukhiya chunate the. ugrasen aandhak sangh ke mukhiya the, jinaka putr kans ek nirankush shasak banana chahata tha. akroor ne krishn se kans ka vadh karava kar prajatantr ki raksha karavaee. vrishni sangh ke hone ke karan dvaraka ke raja, krishn bane. doosare udaharan mean bauddh anushruti ke anusar buddh ne mathura agaman par apane shishy anand se mathura ke sanbandh mean kaha hai ki "yah adi rajy hai, jisane apane lie raja (mahasammat) chuna tha." [20]

sanskriti

braj ke van-upavan, kunj-nikunj, shri yamuna v giriraj atyant mohak haian. pakshiyoan ka madhur svar ekaanki sthali ko madak evan manohar banata hai. moroan ki bahutayat tatha unaki avaz se vatavaran gunjayaman rahata hai. balyakal se hi bhagavan krishn ki sundar mor ke prati vishesh kripa tatha usake pankhoan ko shish mukut ke roop mean dharan karane se skand vahan svaroop mor ko bhakti sahity mean mahattvapoorn sthan mila hai. sarakar ne mor ko rashtriy pakshi ghoshit kar ise sanrakshan diya hai. braj ki mahatta preranatmak, bhavanatmak v rachanatmak hai tatha sahity aur kalaoan ke vikas ke lie yah upayukt sthali hai. sangit, nrity evan abhinay braj sanskriti ke pran bane haian. brajabhoomi anekanek mathoan, moortiyoan, mandiroan, mahantoanan, mahatmaoan aur mahamanishiyoan ki mahima se vandaniy hai. yahaan sabhi sampradayoan ki aradhana sthali hai. braj ki raj ka mahatmay bhaktoan ke lie sarvopari hai.

isilie braj chaurasi kos mean 21 kilomitar ki govardhan-radhakund, 27 kilomitar ki garu d govind-vrindavan, 5-5kos ki mathura-vrindavan, 15-15 kilomitar ki mathura, vrindavan, 6-6 kilomitar nandagaanv, barasana, bahulavan, bhaandiravan, 9 kilomitar ki gokul, 7.5 kilomitar ki baldev, 4.5-4.5 kilomitar ki madhuvan, lohavan, 2 kilomitar ki talavan, 1.5 kilomitar ki kumudavan ki nange paanv tatha dandoti parikrama lagakar shrriddhalu dhany hote haian. pratyek tyohar, utsav, rritu, mah evan din par parikrama dene ka braj mean vishesh prachalan hai. desh ke kone-kone se akar shrriddhalu braj parikramaoan ko dharmik krity aur anushthan manakar ati shraddha bhakti ke sath karate haian. inase naisargik chetana, dharmik parikalpana, sanskriti ke anushilan unnayan, maulik v mangalamayi prerana prapt hoti hai. ashadh tatha adhik mas mean govardhan parvat parikrama hetu lakhoan shraddhalu ate haian. aisi apar bhi d mean bhi rashtriy ekata aur sadbhavana ke darshan hote haian. bhagavan shrikrishn, baladaoo ki lila sthali ka darshan to shraddhaluoan ke lie pramukh hai hi yahaan akroor ji, uddhav ji, narad ji, dhruv ji aur vajranath ji ki yatrayean bhi ullekhaniy haian.

jain sanskriti ka prabhav

pauranik yug mean braj mean anek sanskritiyoan ka samanvay hote-hote jo braj sanskriti bani, vah aitihasik yug mean aur bhi vikasit huee. jaisa ki pratham shatabdi mean jain dharm ne braj ko vishesh roop se prabhavit kiya. jain dharm ke 22vean tirthankar neminathaji braj ke shauripur rajy ke rajakumar v bhagavan shrikrishn ke chachere bhaee the. mathura mean jab vah vivah ke lie padhare, tab barat ke bhojan mean pak de ge pashuoan ke vishal samooh ko dekhakar unhoanne jiv-hiansa ke viruddh vivah karana hi asvikar kar diya aur tap karane chale ge. bad mean unaki avivahit patni rajul ne bhi unhian ka anukaran kiya. isase braj mean jiv-hiansa virodhi jo pratikriya huee, usane poore samaj ko hi prabhavit kiya. aj bhi brajavasiyoan ka bhojan niramish v sattvik hai. abhi bhi adhikaansh brajavasi pyaj aur yahaan tak ki kuchh to tamatar tak se parahej karate haian. mathura v shauripur donoan hi kisi samay jain dharm ke gadh the. bateshvar mean tirthankar ki jo divy pratima hai, vah alha dvara sthapit kahi jati hai. janboo svami ke karan chaurasi tirth aj bhi bharat mean prasiddh haianan. kankali tile par kisi yug mean jain dharm ka pradhan keandr tha. yahaan ka vishal jain stoop dev nirmit mana jata tha. jainoan ka ek yug mean is kshetr par bhari prabhav tha.

bauddh dharm ka prachar-prasar

bauddh dharm ka bhi mathura mean vyapak prachar raha tha. jab bhagavan gautam buddh pratham bar mathura ae to us samay yahaan yakshoan ka b da atank tha. vaianda namak yakshini ne pahale bhagavan buddh ko pareshan kiya, parantu bad mean vah unaki bhakt ban gee thi. mathura mean bauddh dharm kitana phala-phoola aur usaka yahaan kitana vistar hua, yah chini yatri phahyan v hven-tsaansaan ke varnanoan se spasht ho jata hai. buddh ke sau varsh bad mathura mean hi prasiddh bhikshu upagupt ka janm hua tha. ve maury samrat ashok ko apana shishy banakar bauddh dharm ko bharat se bahar poore eshiya mean phailane meanan saphal hue. mathura ke hi kushal kalakaroan ne sarvapratham bhagavan buddh ki moorti ka nirman kiya tha. mathura mean buddhoan ke jitane vihar aur sangharam the, unaka varnan videshi yatriyoan ne b de vistar se kiya hai. is prakar jab tak bharat svatantr raha, braj ki sanskriti samanvay tatha uchch adarshoan ko anupramanit karati huee vividh prabhavoan se navin oj, tej aur sanvriddhishali bani rahi, parantu desh par muslimoan ke akramanoan ke bad sthiti badal gee. braj ki sanskriti aur sanvriddhi par pahala akraman mahamood gazanavi ke netritv mean hua.

braj ki jivan shaili

paramparagat roop se brajavasi sanand jivan vyatit karate haian. nity snan, bhajan, mandir gaman, darshan-jhaanki karana, din–dukhiyoan ki sahayata karana, atithi satkar, lokopakar ke kary, pashu-pakshiyoan ke prati prem, nariyoan ka samman v suraksha, bachchoan ke prati sneh, unhean achchhi shiksha dena tatha laukik vyavahar kushalata unaki jivan shaili ke aang ban chuke haian. yahaan kanya ko devi ke saman poojy mana jata hai. braj vanitayean pati ke sath din-rat kary karate hue kul ki maryada rakhakar pati ke sath rahane mean apana jivan sarthak manati haianan. sanyukt parivar pranali sath rahane, kary karane ,ek-doosare ka dhyan rakhane, chhote-b de ke prati yathochit samman, yahaan ki samajik vyavastha mean parilakshit hota hai. saty aur sanyam braj lok jivan ke pramukh aang haian. yahaan kary ke siddhant ki mahatta hai aur jivoan mean paramatma ka aansh manana hi divy drishti hai.

mahilaoan ki maang mean sindoor , mathe par bindi, nak mean lauang ya bali, kanoan mean kundal ya jhumaki-jhali, gale mean mangal sootr, hathoan mean choo di, pairoan mean bichhua-chutaki, mahavar aur payajeb ya to diya unaki suhag ki nishani mani jati hai. vivahit mahilayean apane pati parivar aur grih ki mangal kamana hetu 'karava chauth' ka vrat karati haian, putravati nariyaan santan ke mangalamay jivan hetu 'ahoee ashtami' ka vrat rakhati haian. svargastak satiya chihn yahaan sabhi maangalik avasaroan par banaya jata hai aur shubh avasaroan par nariyal ka prayog kiya jata hai.

desh ke kone-kone se log yahaan parvoan par ekatr hote haian. jahaan vividhata mean ekata ke sakshat darshan hote haian. braj mean pray: sabhi mandiroan mean rath yatra ka utsav hota hai. chaitr mas mean vrindavan mean ranganath ji ki savari vibhinn vahanoan par nikalati hai. jisamean desh ke kone-kone se akar bhakt sammilit hote haian. jyeshth mas mean ganga dashahara ke din prat: kal se hi vibhinn aanchaloan se shraddhalu akar yamuna mean snan karate haian. is avasar par bhi vibhinn prakar ki veshabhoosha aur shilp ke sath rashtriy ekata ke darshan hote haian, is din chhote-b de sabhi kalatmak dhang ki rangin patang u date haian.

ashadh mas mean govardhan parvat ki parikrama hetu pray: sabhi kshetroan se yatri govardhan ate haian, jisamean abhooshanoan, paridhanoan adi se kshetr ki shilp kala udbhashit hoti hai. shravan mas mean hindoloan ke utsav mean vibhinn prakar se kalatmak dhang se sajja ki jati hai. bhadrapad mean mandiroan mean vishesh kalatmak jhaankiyaan tatha sajavat hoti hai. ashvin mah mean sampoorn braj kshetr mean kanyaean ghar ki divaroan par gobar se vibhinn prakar ki kritiyaan banati haian, jinamean kau diyoan tatha rangin chamakadar kagazoan ke abhooshanoan se apani saanjhi ko kalatmak dhang se sajakar arati karati haian. isi mah se mandiroan mean kagaz ke saanchoan se sookhe rangoan ki vedi ka nirman kar us par alpana banate haian. isako bhi 'saanjhi' kahate haian. kartik mas to shrikrishn ki bal lilaoan se paripoorn rahata hai. akshay tritiya tatha devotthan ekadashi ko mathura tatha vrindavan ki parikrama lagaee jati hai. basant panchami ko sampoorn braj kshetr basanti hota hai. phalgun mas mean to jidhar dekho udhar naga doan, jhaanjh par chaupaee tatha holi ke rasiya ki dhvaniyaan sunaee deti haian. nandagaanv tatha barasana ki latthamar holi, daooji ka huranga jagat prasiddh hai.

braj ka prachin sangit

braj ke prachin sangitajnoan ki pramanik janakari 16vian shatabdi ke bhakti kal se milati hai. is kal mean anekoan sangitajn vaishnav sant hue. sangit shiromani svami haridas, inake guru ashudhir ji tatha unake shishy tanasen adi ka nam sarvavidit hai. baijoobavara ke guru bhi shri haridas ji kahe jate haian, kintu baijoo bavara ne ashtachhap ke kavi sangitajn govind svami ji se hi sangit ka abhyas kiya tha. nimbark sampraday ke shribhatt ji isi kal mean bhakt, kavi aur sangitajn hue. ashtachhap ke mahasangitajn kavi sooradas, nandadas, paramanand das adi bhi isi kal mean prasiddh kirtanakar, kavi aur gayak hue, jinake kirtan ballabh kul ke mandiroan mean gaye jate haian. svami haridas ji ne hi vastut: braj-sangit ke dhrupad-dhamar ki gayaki aur ras-nrity ki parampara chalaee.

sangit

mathura mean sangit ka prachalan bahut purana hai, baansuri braj ka pramukh vady yantr hai. bhagavan shrikrishn ki baansuri ko jan-jan janata hai aur isi ko lekar unhean muralidhar aur vanshidhar adi namoan se pukara jata hai. vartaman mean bhi braj ke lokasangit mean dhol, mridang, jhaanjh, manjira, dhap, naga da, pakhavaj, ekatara adi vady yantroan ka prachalan hai.

16 vian shati se mathura mean ras ke vartaman roop ka prarambh hua. yahaan sabase pahale ballabhachary ji ne svami haradev ke sahayog se vishraant ghat par ras kiya. ras braj ki anokhi den hai, jisamean sangit ke git gady tatha nrity ka samishran hai. braj ke sahity ke saanskritik evan kalatmak jivan ko ras b di sundarata se abhivyakt karata hai. ashtachhap ke kaviyoan ke samay braj mean sangit ki madhur dhara pravahit huee. sooradas, nandadas, krishnadas adi svayan gayak the. in kaviyoan ne apani rachanaoan mean vividh prakar ke gitoan ka apar bhandar bhar diya.

svami haridas sangit shastr ke prakand achary evan gayak the. tanasen jaise prasiddh sangitajn bhi unake shishy the. samrat akabar bhi svami ji ke madhur sangit gitoan ko sunane ka lobh sanvaran n kar saka aur isake lie bhesh badalakar unhean sunane vrindavan aya karata tha. mathura, vrindavan, gokul, govardhan lambe samay tak sangit ke kendr bane rahe aur yahaan door se sangit kala sikhane ate rahe.

lok git

braj mean anekanek gayan shailiyaan prachalit haian aur rasiya braj ki prachinatam gayaki kala hai. bhagavan shrikrishn ki bal lilaoan se sambandhit pad, rasiya adi gayaki ke sath rasalila ka ayojan hota hai. shravan mas mean mahilaoan dvara jhoola jhoolate samay gayi jane vali malhar gayaki ka pradurbhav braj se hi hai. lokasangit mean rasiya, dhola, alha, lavani, chaubola, bahal-tabil, bhagat adi sangit bhi samay-samay par sunane ko milata hai. isake atirikt rritu git, ghareloo git, saanskritik git samay-samay par vibhinn vargoan mean gaye jate haian.

kala

yahaan sthapaty tatha moorti kala ke vikas ka sabase mahattvapoorn yug kushan kal ke prarambh se gupt kal ke ant tak raha. yadyapi isake bad bhi ye kalayean 12vian shati ke ant tak jari rahian. isake bad lagabhag 350 varshoan tak mathura kala ka pravah avaruddh raha, par 16vian shati se kala ka punarutthan sahity, sangit tatha chitrakala ke roop mean dikhaee p dane lagata hai.

braj ke pramukh parv evan tyohar

brajabhoomi parvoan evan tyoharoan ki bhoomi hai. yahaan ki sanskriti utsav pradhan haianan. yahaan har rritu mah evan dinoan mean parv aur tyohar chalate haian. kuchh pramukh tyoharoan ka vivaran nimnavat hai.

parv evan tyohar
braj ke pramukh parv evan tyohar
yam dvitiya par snan, vishram ghat, mathura krishn janmashtami par krishn janmabhoomi ka drishy kans mela, mathura latthamar holi, barasana
holi, daooji mandir, baladev holi, krishn janmabhoomi, mathura rath yatra, vrindavan holi, holi daravaza, mathura


braj ke mukhy darshaniy sthal

nam evan sankshipt vivaran sanbandhit chitr
krishn janmabhoomi

bhagavan shri krishn ki janmabhoomi ka na keval rashdriy star par mahattv hai balki vaishvik star par mathura janapad bhagavan shrikrishn ke janmasthan se hi jana jata hai. aj vartaman mean mahamana pandit madanamohan malaviy ji ki prerana se yah ek bhavy akarshan mandir ke roop mean sthapit hai. paryatan ki drishti se videshoan se bhi bhagavan shrikrishn ke darshan ke lie yahaan pratidin ate haian .... aur padhean

krishn janmabhoomi, mathura
dvarikadhish mandir

mathura nagar ke rajadhiraj bazar mean sthit yah mandir apane saanskritik vaibhav kala evan saundary ke lie anupam hai. gvaliyar raj ke koshadhyaksh seth gokul das parikh ne isaka nirman 1814–15 mean prarambh karaya, jinaki mrityu pashchat inaki sampatti ke uttaradhikari seth lakshmichandr ne mandir ka nirman kary poorn karaya .... aur padhean

dvarikadhish mandir
baanke bihari mandir

baanke bihari mandir mathura zile ke vriandavan dham mean raman reti par sthit hai. yah bharat ke prachin aur prasiddh mandiroan mean se ek hai. baanke bihari krishn ka hi ek roop hai jo isamean pradarshit kiya gaya hai. kaha jata hai ki is mandir ka nirman svami shri haridas ji ke vanshajo ke samoohik prayas se sanvat 1921 ke lagabhag kiya gaya .... aur padhean

baanke bihari mandir
rang nath ji mandir

shri sampraday ke sansthapak ramanujachary ke vishnu-svaroop bhagavan ranganath ya rangaji ke nam se rang ji ka mandir seth lakhamichand ke bhaee seth govindadas aur radhakrishn das dvara nirman karaya gaya tha. unake mahan guru sanskrit ke achary svami rangachary dvara diye gaye madras ke rang nath mandir ki shaili ke manachitr ke adhar par yah bana tha. isaki bahari divar ki lambaee 773 phit aur chau daee 440 phit hai .... aur padhean

rang nath ji mandir
govind dev mandir

govind dev ji ka mandir vriandavan mean sthit vaishnav sanpraday ka mandir hai. mandir ka nirman ee. 1590 mean tatha ise banane mean 5 se 10 varsh lage. mandir ki bhavyata ka anuman is uddharan se lagaya ja sakata hai aurangazeb ne sham ko tahalate hue, dakshin-poorv mean door se dikhane vali raushani ke bare jab poochha to pata chala ki yah chamak vrindavan ke vaibhavashali mandiroan ki hai .... aur padhean

govind dev mandir
isk aaun mandir

vrindavan ke adhunik mandiroan mean yah ek bhavy mandir hai. ise aangrezoan ka mandir bhi kahate haian. kesariya vastroan mean hare rama–hare krishna ki dhun mean tamam videshi mahila–purush yahaan dekhe jate haian. mandir mean radha krishn ki bhavy pratimayean haian aur atyadhunik sabhi suvidhayean haian .... aur padhean

isk aaun mandir vrindavan
madan mohan mandir

shrikrishn bhagavan ke anek namoan mean se ek priy nam madanamohan bhi hai. isi nam se ek mandir mathura zile ke vriandavan dham mean vidyaman hai. vishalakayik nag ke phan par bhagavan charanaghat kar rahe haian. puratanata mean yah mandir govind dev ji ke mandir ke bad ata hai .... aur padhean

madan mohan mandir vrindavan
danaghati mandir

mathura–dig marg par govardhan mean yah mandir sthit hai. girrajaji ki parikrama hetu ane vale lakhoan shrriddhalu is mandir mean poojan karake apani parikrama prarambh kar poorn labh kamate haian. braj mean is mandir ki bahut mahatta hai. yahaan abhi bhi is par se usapar ya usapar se is par karane mean tol taiks dena p data hai. krishnalila ke samay krishn ne dani banakar gopiyoan se premakalah kar nok–jhoank ke sath danalila ki hai .... aur padhean

danaghati
manasi ganga

govardhan gaanv ke bich mean shri manasi ganga hai. parikrama karane mean dayian aur p dati hai aur pooanchhari se lautane par bhi dayian aur isake darshan hote haian. manasi ganga ke poorv disha mean- shri mukharavind, shri lakshminarayan mandir, shri kishorishyam mandir, shri giriraj mandir, shri manmahaprabhu ji ki baithak, shri radhakrishn mandir sthit haian .... aur padhean

manasi ganga
kusum sarovar

mathura mean govardhan se lagabhag 2 kilomitar door radhakund ke nikat sthapaty kala ke namoone ka ek samooh javahar sianh dvara apane pita soorajamal ( ee.1707-1763) ki smriti mean banavaya gaya. kusum sarovar govardhan ke parikrama marg mean sthit ek ramanik sthal hai jo ab sarakar ke sanrakshan mean hai .... aur padhean

kusum sarovar
radha rani mandir

is mandir ko barasane ki la dali ji ka mandir bhi kaha jata hai. radha ka yah prachin mandir madhyakalin hai jo lal aur pile patthar ka bana hai. radha-krishn ko samarpit is bhavy aur sundar mandir ka nirman raja vir sianh ne 1675 mean karavaya tha. bad mean sthaniy logoan dvara pattharoan ko is mandir mean lagavaya. .... aur padhean

radha rani mandir
nand ji mandir

nand ji ka mandir, nandagaanv mean sthit hai. nandagaanv brajamandal ka prasiddh tirth hai. govardhan se 16 mil pashchim uttar kon mean, kosi se 8 mil dakshin mean tatha vrindavan se 28 mil pashchim mean nandagaanv sthit hai. nandagaanv ki pradakshina (parikrama) char mil ki hai. yahaan par krishn lilaoan se sambandhit 56 kund haian. jinake darshan mean 3–4 din lag jate haian .... aur padhean

nand ji mandir

braj chaurasi kos ki yatra

chaitany mahaprabhu mandir, govardhan, mathura
  • varah puran kahata hai ki prithvi par 66 arab tirth haian aur ve sabhi chaturmas mean braj mean akar nivas karate haian. yahi vajah hai ki vraj yatra karane vale in dinoan yahaan khianche chale ate haian. hazaroan shraddhalu braj ke vanoan mean dera dale rahate haian.
  • brajabhoomi ki yah pauranik yatra hazaroan sal purani hai. chalis din mean poori hone vali braj chaurasi kos yatra ka ullekh ved-puran v shruti granthasanhita mean bhi hai. krishn ki bal kri daoan se hi nahian, sat yug mean bhakt dhruv ne bhi yahi akar narad ji se guru mantr le akhand tapasya ki v braj parikrama ki thi.
  • treta yug mean prabhu ram ke laghu bhrata shatrughn ne madhu putr lavanasur ko mar kar braj parikrama ki thi. gali bari sthit shatrughn mandir yatra marg mean ati mahattv ka mana jata hai.
  • dvapar yug mean uddhav ne gopiyoan ke sath braj parikrama ki.
  • kali yug mean jain aur bauddh dharmoan ke stoop baily sangharam adi sthaloan ke saankhy is pariyatra ki pushti karate haian.
  • 14vian shatabdi mean jain dharmachary jin prabhu shoori ki mean braj yatra ka ullekh ata hai.
  • 15vian shatabdi mean madhv sampraday ke achary maghaveandr puri maharaj ki yatra ka varnan hai.
  • 16vian shatabdi mean mahaprabhu vallabhachary, gosvami vitthalanath, chaitany mat kesari chaitany mahaprabhu, roop gosvami, sanatan gosvami, narayan bhatt, nimbark sanpraday ke chaturanaga adi ne braj yatra ki thi.
sooradas, soorasarovar, agara

brajabhasha

brajabhasha moolat: brajakshetr ki boli hai. vikram ki 13vian shatabdi se lekar 20vian shatabdi tak bharat mean sahityik bhasha rahane ke karan braj ki is janapadiy boli ne apane vikas ke sath bhasha nam prapt kiya aur brajabhasha nam se jani jane lagi. shuddh roop mean yah aj bhi mathura, agara, dhaulapur aur aligadh ziloan mean boli jati hai. ise ham keandriy brajabhasha bhi kah sakate haian. prarambh mean brajabhasha mean hi kavy rachana huee. bhakti kal ke kaviyoan ne apani rachanaean brajabhasha mean hi likhi haian, jinamean sooradas, rahim, rasakhan, biharilal, keshav, ghananand adi kavi pramukh haian. hindi filmoan aur filmi gitoan mean bhi brajabhasha ke shabdoan ka bahut prayog hota hai. adhunik brajabhasha 1 karo d 23 lakh janata ke dvara boli jati hai aur lagabhag 38,000 vargamil ke kshetr mean phaili huee hai.

braj ki veshabhoosha

paramparagat roop se dharmikata aur sadagi braj ki jivanashaili ka aang hai. bujurgoan mean purushoan ko shvet dhoti-kurta kandhe par gamachha ya shal aur sar par pag di tatha nariyoan ko lahanga-chunari athava sa di blauj sahit bachchoan ko jhanga-jhangali, jhabala pahanavoan mean samany roop se dekha jata hai. sardiyoan mean rooee ki bandi, khadi ke band gale ka kot, sadari aur ooni svetar bhi paramparagat purushoan ke pahanave haian. adhik sardi ke dinoan mean purush loee athava kambal bhi odhate haian. mahilayean svetar pahanane ke alava sh aaul odhati haian. pairoan mean samanyat: joote, chappal pahane jate haian. adhunikata ke daur mean yuvak jins, pent-shart, soot aur yuvatiyoan par midi, salavar soot, ti-shart adi adhunik pahanavoan ka asar hai. sadhuoan ki veshabhoosha mean samanyat: kesariya, shvet athava pit vastroan ka chalan hai. sardi ke dinoan mean ye garm kap doan ka bhi prayog karate haian aur pairoan mean kh daooan athava kantan ki jooti pahanate haian.

braj ka vishesh bhojan

braj ka vishesh bhojan jo dalabati choorama ke nam se jana jata hai, yah brajavasiyoan ka vishesh bhojan hai. samaroh, utsavoan, aur sair sapatoan evan vishesh avasaroan par yah bhojan taiyar kiya jata hai aur log isaka anand lete haian. yah bhojan poori tarah se deshi ghi mean taiyar hota hai. isake alava missi roti (gu dachini), malapua, adi bhi bahutayat mean khaya jata hai.

braj ki mithaee

pe da
braj mean mithaeeyoan ka bahut mahattv hai. braj ki sabase prasiddh mithaee pe da hai.
ghevar
braj jaisa pe da kahian nahian milata. braj mean mathura ke pe de se achchhe aur svadisht pe de duniya bhar mean kahian bhi nahian milate haian. ap yadi paramparik taur par mathura ke pe de ka ek tuk da bhi chakhate haian to kam-se-kam char pe de se kam khakar to ap rah hi nahian payeange. braj mean zyadatar vyaktiyoan ki pasandida chiz mithaee hoti hai. braj ke log mithaee khane ke bahut shauqin hote haian. vaise to braj ki har mithaee prasiddh hoti hai, lekin pe da mukhy hai. pe de ke alava khurachan, rab di, sonahalava, imarati adi pramukh haian.

braj ki holi

yah braj ka vishesh tyohar hai, yoan to puranoan ke anusar isaka sambandh pauranik kathaoan se hai aur braj mean bhi holi isi din jalaee jati hai. isamean yajn roop mean navin ann ki balean bhooni jati haianan. prahlad ki katha ki prerana isase milati haian. holi dahan ke din kosi ke nikat phalain gaanv mean prahlad kund ke pas bhakt prahlad ka mela lagata hai. yahaan tez jalati huee holi mean se nange badan aur nange paanv panda nikalata hai. phalgun ke mah rangabharani ekadashi se sabhi mandiroan mean phag utsav prarambh hote haian, jo dauj tak chalate haian. dauj ko baldev (daooji) mean huranga hota hai. barasana, nandagaanv, jav, bathain, jatipura, anyaur adi mean bhi holi kheli jati hai.

holi ke vibhinn drishy
holi, daooji mandir, baladev
holi, radha rani mandir, barasana
holi, radha rani mandir, barasana
holi, daooji mandir, baladev
latthamar holi
holi, holi daravaza, mathura
holi, daooji mandir, baladev
latthamar holi
holi, holi daravaza, mathura
holi, krishn janmabhoomi, mathura


garteshvar mahadev, mathura

braj mean gopi bane tripurari

shrimadropishvaran vande shankaran karunakaramh.
sarvakleshaharan devan vrindaranye ratipradamh॥

ram avatar ke samay

jab-jab dharati par bhagavan ne avatar liya, tab-tab unake balaroop ke darshan karane ke lie bhagavan shankar prithvi par padhare. shri ramavatar ke samay bhagavan shankar vriddh jyotishi ke roop mean shri kakabhushundi ji ke sath ayodhya mean padhare aur ranivas mean pravesh kar bhagavan shriram, lakshman, bharat aur shatrughn ke darshan kiye.

auru ek kahuan nij chori. sunu girija ati dridh mati tori॥
kakabhusandi sang ham dooo. manujaroop jani nahian kooo॥

shrikrishnavatar ke samay

shri krishnavatar ke samay sadhu vesh mean baba bholenath gokul padhare. yashoda bholenath ji ka vesh dekhakar yashoda ji ne kanha ka darshan nahian karaya. dhooni laga di dvar par, lala rone lage, nazar lag gayi. baba bholenath ne lala ki nazar utari. baba bholenath kanha ko god mean lekar nand ke aangan mean nach uthe. aj bhi nand gaanv mean bholenath 'nandeshvar' nam se virajaman haian.

braj mean svami haridas ji

shri baanke bihari mandir vrindavan ji maharaj ko vrindavan mean prakat karane vale svami haridas ji ka janm vikram samvat 1535 mean bhadrapad mas ke shuklapaksh ki ashtami (shri radhashtami) ke brahm muhoort mean hua tha. inake guru shri ashudhir ji apane upasy shriradha-madhav ki prerana se patni gangadevi ke sath anek tirthoanan ki yatra karane ke pashchath aligadh janapad ki kol tahasil mean 'braj' akar ek gaanv mean bas ge. vikram samvath 1560 mean pachchis varsh ki avastha mean shri haridas vrindavan pahuanche. vahaan unhoanne nidhivan ko apani tap sthali banaya.


vithika

tika tippani aur sandarbh

  1. d aau. chandrakanta chaudhari
  2. manusmriti 4.67
  3. bhagavadgita 18.66
  4. 11.74, (yah dhatu prayah gamh ya dhatu ki bhaanti prayukt hoti hai
  5. manusmriti 11.111 ku.7.38
  6. manu.6.38,8.363
  7. raghuvansh 6.7, 7.67, shishupalavadh 6.6,14.33
  8. 2|165
  9. amar kosh 3-3-30
  10. yajurved 1 - 25
  11. atharvaved (4 - 38 - 7
  12. atharvaved(2 - 26 - 1
  13. bhagavath 10 -1-10
  14. harivansh, vishnu parv 6 - 30
  15. vaishnav khand bhagavat mahatmy, 1 -16 - 20
  16. evigraphiya iandika, ji0 20, pri0 54-8
  17. ray chaudhari - vahi, pri0 392-93. brahmamitr mathura ka pratapi shasak pratit hota hai. isake sikke b di sankhya mean prapt hue haian. 1954 ke praranbh mean brahmamitr ke lagabhag 700 taanbe ke sikkoan ka gh da, dher mathura mean mila hai.
  18. saankashyakebhyashch pataliputr kebhyashchamathura abhiroopatara iti (mahabhashy, 5,3,57). sankashy ka adhunik nam sankisa hai, jo uttar pradesh ke farrukhabad zile mean kali nadi ke tat par sthit hai.
  19. lekh ke prapti-sthan katara keshavadev se guptakalin kalakritiyaan bahut b di sankhya mean prapt huee haian, jinase jnat hota hai ki is samay mean yahaan vibhinn sundar pratimaoan sahit ek vaishnav manndir tha.
  20. …prajataantrik vyavastha (hindi) (pi.ech.pi) braj diskavari. abhigaman tithi: 25 joon, 2011.

bahari k diyaan

sanbandhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

   a    a    i    ee    u    oo    e    ai    o    au    aan    k    kh    g    gh    n    ch    chh    j    jh    n    t    th    d    dh    n    t    th    d    dh    n    p    ph    b    bh    m    y    r    l    v    sh    sh    s    h    ksh    tr    jn    rri    rri    aau    shr    aah